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Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Professor and Director, School Psychology Program National Louis University, Skokie, IL An Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Professor and Director, School Psychology Program National Louis University, Skokie, IL An Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Professor and Director, School Psychology Program National Louis University, Skokie, IL An Introduction to Increasing Capacity for Evidence-Based Intervention in Multi-Tier Services and Supports North Dakota Department of Public Instruction Webinar November 30 th, 2011

2 About Mark: A Few Hats.... Professor of School Psychology and Special Education, National-Louis University and Formerly, University of Oregon IASPIRE Northern Region Project Director Staff Development and Consultant to School Districts and SDEs in 42 States Since 1985 Researcher and Author

3 Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Serves as a Paid Consultant for Pearson Assessment for their AIMSweb product that provides CBM assessment materials and organizes and report the information from 3 tiers, including RTI Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Serves as a Consultant for Cambium/Voyager/Sopris for their Vmath product, a remedial mathematics intervention Mark R. Shinn, Ph.D. Serves as a Consultant for McGraw-Hill Publishing for their Jamestown Reading Navigator (JRN) product and receives royalties Disclosure

4 1. Provide Participants a COMMON Experience to Set the Stage for the Work 2. Provide a Context of What We Need to be Thinking about in Intervention Selection and Delivery 3. Provide Guidance to a Beginning Set of Resources to Read 4. Provide Components of a Scaffold for YOU to Create a Consumers Guide to Evidence- Based Intervention Todays Goals

5 If You Want To Understand Where We Were From a Practice Perspective…. Germann, G. (2010). Thinking of Yellow Brick Roads, Emerald Cities, and Wizards. In M. R. Shinn & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems in a three-tier model, including RTI. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

6 Accessing Your Materials markshinn.org 1. Click on the Downloads for Professionals Icon 2. Click on the Presentations and Handouts Folder 3.North Dakota DPI E-B Project FolderNorth Dakota DPI E-B Project Folder

7 Elementary Scenario It was a pretty good composition. I felt proud knowing it was the best one at my school. After Id read it five times, I was impatient to start reading it out loud. I followed the books directions again. First I read the composition out loud without trying to sound impressive, just to hear what the words sounded like. Billy, Another 4th Grader What Intervention Would This Student Receive In Elementary School?

8 High School What Special Education Services Would This Student Receive In Your High School?

9 Middle School Scenario 81 What Special Education Services Would This Student Receive In Your Middle School?

10 We Push the Problem Down the Road UNTIL…...

11 We Know the Predictive Variables Kennelly, L., & Monrad, M. (2007). Approaches to dropout prevention: Heeding early warning signs with appropriate interventions. Washington DC: National High School Center at the American Institutes for Research (AIR). HALF of Grade 6 students attend less than 80%, low grade in behavior, fail Math or English 75% of Grade 8 who miss 5 weeks of school OR fail Math or English 85% of Grade 9 students who fail more than 1 core subject in Grade 9 and fail to be promoted to Grade 10

12 No Wimpy Interventions Intervene EARLY and Powerfully Reduce the GAP Early to Focus on Future Learning Rather than Constantly Catching Up

13 1. Know What You Are Going to Do BEFORE You Decide Where to Do It! 2. Be Proactive and Problem Solve Interventions for Groups Versus Individuals 3. Dont Build Additional Intervention Solely on the Backs of General Education Teachers 4. Ensure That Allocated Time is Sufficient to Get the Job Done--For Everyone! 5. Avoid Inventing Interventions and a Bias Against Proven Programs 6. Never Use a Bandaid When a Bandage is Needed 7. If the Aquarium Is Dirty, Dont Treat Individual Fish 8. Guarantee Results by Knowing If What Youre Doing Makes a Different Big Ideas About Powerful Interventions

14 Know What You Are Going to Do BEFORE You Decide Where to Do It! Conversation... What Are You Doing For Your Service Delivery? We Are Doing Pull Out What Are You Doing When You Do Pull Out? Well, You Know...Pull Out! Conversation... What Are You Doing For Your Service Delivery? We Are Doing Push In. What Are You Doing When You Do Push In? Well, You Know...Push In!

15 Know What You Are Going to Do BEFORE You Decide Where to Do It! Substitute...Your System... What Are You Doing For Your Service Delivery? We Are Doing Co-Teaching What Are You Doing When You Do Co- Teaching? We Are Providing Intensive Instruction in the Science Multi-Syllabic Words, Vocabulary, and Comprehension Strategies Using the REWARDS Science Program!

16 Find the Kid (1 at a Time) Who ? Figure Out What to Do for the Kid (1 at a Time) What? Be Proactive and Problem Solve Interventions for Groups Versus Individuals

17 New Way THEN Find the Kid(s) Thru Triage Who? Find the PROGRAM (What GROUPS of Kids Need) What? Problem Solve for GROUPSScreen and Triage

18 Tier 1 is Delivery of a Scientifically Based Core Program with... Fidelity Intensity Passion Reasonable Accommodations If Done Well, We Expect to Meet the Needs of Most...Some Will Need More

19 What Makes a Core Reading Program Evidence-Based? Stanovich, P. J., & Stanovich, K. E. (2003). How teachers can use scientifically based research to make curricular and instructional decision. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, US Department of Education, US Department of Health and Human Services.

20 § Scientifically based research. Has the meaning given the term in section 9101(37) of the ESEA. 20 U.S.C. 1411(e)(2)(C)(xi)) Scientifically based research-- (a) Means research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs; and (b) Includes research that-- (1) Employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; (2) Involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn; (3) Relies on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and valid data across evaluators and observers, across multiple measurements and observations, and across studies by the same or different investigators; (4) Is evaluated using experimental or quasi-experimental designs in which individuals, entities, programs, or activities are assigned to different conditions and with appropriate controls to evaluate the effects of the condition of interest, with a preference for random-assignment experiments, or other designs to the extent that those designs contain within-condition or across-condition controls; (5) Ensures that experimental studies are presented in sufficient detail and clarity to allow for replication or, at a minimum, offer the opportunity to build systematically on their findings; and (6) Has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review. What is Scientifically Based? (b) Includes research that-- (6) Has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review.

21 What Makes a Core Reading Program Evidence-Based?

22 Tier 2 is MORE (More) Time (More) Explicit Teacher-Led Instruction (More) Scaffolded Instruction (More) Opportunities to Respond with Corrective Feedback (More) Language Support, Especially Vocabulary (More) Intensive Motivational Strategies (More) Frequent Progress Monitoring

23 Tier 3 is MOST (Most) Time (Most) Explicit Teacher-Led Instruction (Most) Scaffolded Instruction (Most) Opportunities to Respond with Corrective Feedback (Most) Language Support, Especially Vocabulary (Most) Intensive Motivational Strategies (Most) Frequent Progress Monitoring

24 Dont Build More Intensive Interventions Solely on the Backs of GE Teachers

25 ITS TOO EASY TO ADD TO THE BURDEN OF GE TEACHERS ALONE General Education Teacher DOES MORE Within Their Class GE TEACHERS DO MORE Flexible Skill Grouping Across Classes within a Grade GE TEACHERS DO MORE Flexible Skill Grouping Across Classes Across Grades School Provides Before or After School Intervention School Provides Computerized Interventions School Creates and Staffs Universal Intervention Periods DISTRICT BUILDS Coordinated Remedial Resources

26 Program and Focus Amount of Time Points of Vulnerability General Education Tier 1 Novel StudySingle Period Teacher to Teacher Variability, Often Little Explicit Instruction About How to Navigate and Comprehend Narrative and Content Area Texts; Writing Instruction is Idiosyncratic Tier 2 Non-Existent or Separate, But Less Difficult Version of the Core Former Puts Pressure on Special Education to Assume Responsibility; Later Fails to Deliver Skills Students Need to Reduce the Gap and Be Successful in ALL Content Classes Tier 3 Really Only Special Education as an Option and Too Often, Only Computer-Driven or Bandaid Programs Single Period, Supplanted Instruction Doesnt Reduce the Gap and Doesnt Support Success in ALL Content Classes Ensure There is Sufficient Time and a Coordinated Plan of Appropriately Intensive Intervention, FOR EVERYONE

27 Strengthen and Coordinate Your Core Language Arts Curriculum Across 3 Tiers Consider a Common, Scientifically Based Core Language Arts Program (At Least Through Grade 9) Adjust Intensity and Explicitness of Language Arts Components Curriculum By Needs of Students Ensure You Have Sufficient Time to Impact Tier 1 and Deliver Tiers 2 and 3 WITHIN the Period/Block

28 Daily Double Block or Double Period Language Arts (and Preferably Math) At least at Grade 6 and potentially higher grades if there are significant reading (and or mathematics) difficulties in sizable #s. Allocates sufficient time to deliver intervention within the block. Reduces the need for students to miss other classes. Reduces scheduling pressures. Addressing Structural Changes

29 We Need to Read About Adolescent Reading and Literacy Instruction Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices: A Practice Guide. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Educational Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. 109

30 Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices: A Practice Guide Recommendations

31 Marks Biased Approach Program and FocusAmount of Time General Education Tier 1 Strong, Teacher-Led, Comprehensive Language Arts Program with Explicit Instruction in Comprehending Narrative and Content Textbooks (i.e., Read to Achieve) + Novel Study Strongly Biased Toward Non-Fiction Double Period or Block Every Day Tier 2 Read to Achieve, Plus More Explicit and Targeted Intervention + (e.g., Rewards) + Structured Outside Wide Reading Tier 2 Delivered Within the Double Period/Block Tier 3 Read to Achieve + Explicit and Comprehensive Intervention (e.g., REACH or Corrective Reading) + Structured Outside Wide Reading 3 Periods

32 Proactive Reading Intervention Aligned with Severity of Problem Slide from, and based on, original work of Wayne Callender, Partners for Learning,

33 Avoid Inventing Interventions and a Bias Against Proven Programs

34 No More Inventing Interventions For Students At Risk

35 Avoid Bias Against Proven Programs! High quality teaching and training materials (print, video, electronic) There is still the problem of superficial implementation when new materials are in use, and even new practices in evidence, without the deeper understanding required for substantial and sustained implementation. But you get farther, faster by producing quality materials and establishing a highly interactive infrastructure of pressure and support. Finally, the materials do not have to be treated as prescriptive. Many judgments can and should be made during implementation as long as they are based on evidence linking teacher practices with student performance To achieve large scale reform you cannot depend on peoples capacity to bring about substantial change in the short run, so you need to propel the process with... Fullan, M. (2008). The six secrets of change: What the best leaders do to help their organizations survive and thrive. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.

36 Examples of Tier 2 or 3 Math Interventions Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Connecting Math Concepts (CMC; SRA) as MS Tier 1 or Tier 2 Essentials for Algebra (SRA) as a Middle School Tier 1 and Tier 2 and HS Tier 2 or 3 VMath (Voyager) at Tier 2 or 3 Transitional Math (Sopris West) at Tier 2 Corrective Math (SRA) at Tiers 2 and Especially 3

37 Never Use a Bandaid When a Bandage is Needed At Risk Students or With Significant Discrepancies Usually Have Multiple and Significant Intervention Needs...Not One So We Bought More Band Aids Until We Discovered That….Sometimes Band Aids Were Used for the Wrong Purpose Until We Discovered It Was Pretty Expensive and Ugly in Terms of Logistics

38 Band Aid Versus Bandage Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Understanding Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension To Me, A Bandage Covers More...A Good Intervention Should Cover Multiple and Deep Concerns

39 If the Aquarium Is Dirty, Dont Treat Individual Fish is Needed

40 Why? The Underlining Problem in Many Places Which of These 75 Students Will Be Referred for SE? Which, After Testing, Would Qualify?

41 Ensure Things Are Working By Progress Monitoring Using Proven Tools

42 Progress Monitoring Is Powerful...effective across student age, treatment duration, frequency of measurement, and special needs status Major message is for teachers to pay attention to the formative effects of their teaching as it is these attribute of seeking (my emphasis) formative evaluation...that makes for excellence in teaching (p. 181) Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

43 To Reduce the Gap, Powerful Tools are Required Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

44 Contrast PM with A More Popular Intervention Individualized Instruction Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

45 Use Tools Reviewed by the USDE/OSEP National RTI Center w

46 SPECIAL EDUCATION LEADS! The Gold Standard for Students with IEPS

47 Leadershi p is Required By Administrators, By Staff

48 What Leadership Can Do... Build Commitment--Some Things You Just Dont VOTE On! Give Permission and Guide the Abandonment Process Allocate Resources Coordinate Staff Development Ensure the Work Gets Done

49 Building a Scaffold for Judging E-B Interventions What Do We Think About When Selecting Interventions? What Adults Prefer? What Students Need? How Do We Judge?

50 Build Your Consumers Guide

51 Tier 2 is MORE (More) Time (More) Explicit Teacher-Led Instruction (More) Scaffolded Instruction (More) Opportunities to Respond with Corrective Feedback (More) Language Support, Especially Vocabulary (More) Intensive Motivational Strategies (More) Frequent Progress Monitoring

52 Marks Beginning Suggestions Works Best With? Works Less Well With? Grade Ranges Comprehensive Intervention or Specifically Targeted? Fidelity of Implementation Tools Available? Placement and Diagnostic Tests Included? Cost? Suggested Implementation Time and Duration? Intensity of Training and Support Required?

53 Places to Begin Reading to Identify Scaffold Features and Why They Are Important (ASAP) Build Consensus on Scaffold Identify Interventions for Review, Including Local Inventory Prioritize List Field Test Scaffold on Top 3-5 Priority Interventions and Discuss Results (Everyone to Test Inter-Rater) Revise Scaffold as Necessary Expand to Include Reviews of All Priority Interventions (At Least 2-3 per Program) Publish Brief Background Document on Process and Participants


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