Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution Purpose: What: Rebellion By: Understanding how the Continental Army was able to win the war for independence from Great Britain."— Presentation transcript:
The American Revolution Purpose: What: Rebellion By: Understanding how the Continental Army was able to win the war for independence from Great Britain. So: We understand how it affects our life.
A. In the Beginning. 1. Americans are excited. 2. Americans are not ready for war. 3. British are ready for war. 4. Americans should lose. Essential Question: How was the Continental Army able to win the war for independence from Great Britain.
A. American Weaknesses 1. Few Soldiers 2. Untrained Army and Militias 3. Limited money and resources/supplies 4. No Navy B. American Strengths 1. Many Americans supported the revolutionary cause. 2. Fighting on home ground: 3. Fighting for a cause in which they believed 4. George Washington
A. Great Britain’s Strengths. 1. More Money and resources than the colonies. 2. Well-trained army 3. largest navy in the world. 4. More soldiers B. Great Britain’s Weaknesses. 1. Included some mercenaries, or hired soldiers, not dedicated to the British cause. 2. Britain had to ship supplies across the Atlantic. 3. Had to deal with hostile citizens
What military advantages did the British have over the colonists? Well trained army, largest navy in the world What advantages did the colonists have over the British? Many Americans strongly supported the revolution, and they were fighting on home ground for a cause in which they believed.
The American Revolution Objectives: 1. How did different groups contribute to the war effort?
A.. 1.. 2.. B. African Americans and the War. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. C.. 1.. 2.. D.. 1.. 2.. 3..
A. Britain’s War Strategy 1. William Howe ordered to capture New York City 2. Washington leaves Boston to stop British in New York. B. African Americans and the War. 1. What did the Declaration mean for slaves. Free, equal? 2. African Americans already were involved. Not allowed in Continental Army. 3. Washington and Southerners did not want slaves running away to join the army. 4. 1775 Lord Dunmore's Proclamation promised freedom to any slave who fought for the British. 5. Continental Army began allowing free African Americans to enlist, and eventually some 5,000 joined
C. Defeat in New York 1. Americans suffer great lose in Battles of New York. 2. Howe thinks he won and allows Washington to escape. D. Fading Hope. 1. Washington is run out of New York, New Jersey and into PA. 2. Life was miserable for Continental Army and all seemed lost. 3. Solders enlistment were up and the army was going home.
Important Questions Why did the Continental Army decide to allow free African Americans to enlist? - In response to Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation, which offered freedom to any African American who fought for the British.
The American Revolution Objectives: 1.What were Washington’s strategies at Trenton and Princeton?
A.. B. The Crisis. 1.. 2.. 3.. C. Victory at Trenton. 1.. 2.. 3.. 4..
A. Victorious British offer pardon for surrender. B. The Crisis. 1. Washington desperate to keep his army. 2. Has Thomas Paine’s The Crisis read to army. 3. He also plans a daring attack on Trenton to boost morale. C. Victory at Trenton. 1. Washington’s army crossed the icy Delaware River on Christmas night of 1776. 2. Arrive in Trenton the next morning to surprise the drunk Hessians. 3. They capture Trenton and 800 Hessian mercenaries. 4. Victory electrifies the Continental army who re-enlist.
Trenton Howe sent Hessians to New Jersey On Christmas night in 1776, Washington and 2,400 soldiers silently crossed the icy Delaware River. Washington led a surprise attack the next morning. Patriots won the Battle of Trenton in less than an hour. Princeton Washington marched northeast to Princeton, New Jersey. The hard-fought Battle of Princeton ended in another victory for the Patriots.
The American Revolution Objectives: 1.Why was the Battle of Saratoga a turning point in the war?
A. Early Strategy Changes. 1. First strategy was to win one big battle. 2. Washington changes strategy. Avoid big battles. 3. He would be defensive and wear the British out. B. A New British Strategy. 1. British change their strategy. Divide the colonies in half between New York and New England 2. John Burgoyne’s plan for dividing New England. a. He was attack from Canada b. Howe would attack from the south c. Another army from the west.
C. Problems with Burgoyne’s plan. 1. The map route looked easy but was not. a. Thick wilderness and lot of extra supplies slowed the army. 2. General Howe did not go to Albany. He went to Philly D. Turning Point 1. Burgoyne makes it to Saratoga but it is meets the Continental Army. 2. Burgoyne gets no help from other armies and is forced to surrender. 3. Battle of Saratoga is first major victory. We get: a. France and Spain enter the war on our side. b. Boosts morale c. Ends threat to New England E. Winter at Valley Forge. 1. Saratoga great victory but not the end. Cold winter of suffering 2. Howe still in Philly and Washington roamed the country. 3. No food for Washington because Continental Money was worthless. British paid in gold. 4. Baron Fredrich Von Steuben a Prussian officer trains the Army. 5. Marquis de Lafayette a French noblemen helps with his service and money.
Continental army spent the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge, Pa. Hardships More than one fifth of the Continental Army died of disease and malnutrition. Some soldiers became angry and frustrated with the lack of supplies and pay. Veteran Prussian officer Baron Friedrich von Steubon drilled the Continental soldiers and helped turn them into well-trained group.
British Strategy for New England General John Burgoyne was to attack Fort Ticonderoga and then march south. A second force was to march east from Lake Ontario. General Howe’s troops were to march north from New York City. All three forces were to meet at Albany, New York. Howe defeated the Continental Army at the Battle of Brandywine Creek. Saratoga Burgoyne’s troops reached Albany before other forces did As a result, Patriot forces outnumbered Burgonye’s and the Patriots won the Battle of Saratoga. Victory raised colonial morale and increased foreign support for the Revolution.
1. What effects did the America victory at Saratoga have? - Improved colonial morale - Increased foreign support for Patriots - Ended threat in New England - 1 st Major victory and turning point
The American Revolution Objectives: 1.Describe how the war took place in the southern colonies?
A.. 1.. 2.. B. Saving the South 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. C. A Trap at Yorktown 1.. 2.. 3.. 4.. D. Cornwallis Surrenders 1.. 2.. 3..
A. British Change Strategy again. 1. Move the war to the south which is full of Loyalists. 2. Attack Savannah, Georgia and move north. B. Saving the South 1. Guerrillas are soldiers who are not part of the regular army. 2. Guerrillas keep Cornwallis from gaining control of the south. 3. Francis Marion (The Swamp Fox) leads his band of men on hit-and-run attacks to harass the British. 4. Washington send Nathanael Greene down south to slow the British. 5. Greene’s army is to small so he gets Cornwallis to chase him through the country until Cornwallis tires and goes to Yorktown. C. A Trap at Yorktown 1. 5,000 French troops join Washington in New York and another 3,000 on the way. 2. Washington secretly moves his army south to trap Cornwallis. 3. The French navy blocks the Chesapeake Bay so Cornwallis can not be rescued. 4. Washington and the French siege Yorktown and bombed it for days. D. Cornwallis Surrenders 1. Cornwallis hoped the British navy would rescue him. 2. He finally realized he would not be rescued. 3. On October 19, 1781 the British surrender.
British Strategy Focused on the southern colonies after defeat in the Battle of Saratoga. Freed slaves, who then assisted the British war effort. British Victories Captured port cities of Savannah, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina. Defeated Patriot forces led by Horatio Gates at Camden, South Carolina. British victory at Camden destroyed the Patriots’ southern army. Patriots Fight Back Patriots switch to guerrilla warfare- swift hit and run attacks. Francis Marion, known as the Swamp Fox and a master of guerrilla warfare, led a group of soldiers that attacked British communications and supply lines.
How did the Patriots respond to the destruction of their southern army? - They turned to guerrilla warfare.
The American Revolution Objectives: 1.Examine the events that finally ended the war?
A. Aftermath of the War. 1. French war debt cause their own revolution. 2. British hold on for two more years until support is gone. B. The Treaty of Paris. 1. Britain recognized the United States of America. 2. Britain gives up claims to all lands between Atlantic and Mississippi River. 3. The U.S. agrees to return all rights and property taken from Loyalists C. The Impact of the American Revolution. 1. Europe is inspired to create their own democracies. 2. Leads to revolution is South America.
Difficult Times By 1781 the Patriots had run low on money to pay soldiers and buy supplies. Entry of foreign allies had not ended the war quickly, as the Patriots had hoped. Patriots lost morale when Benedict Arnold, a gifted officer, turned traitor. British controlled most of the south. Yorktown Lies on a peninsula in Virginia. British general Charles Cornwallis moved to Yorktown to attack a patriot force. In New York, General George Washington and French general Comte de Rochambeau planned a strategy to trap Cornwallis. The Battle French fleet took control of the Chesapeake Bay, which prevented Cornwallis from receiving reinforcements by sea. Combined American-French force, which was more than twice the size of Cornwallis’s forces, surrounded Cornwallis and put his forces under siege. After several weeks, Battle of Yorktown ended with Cornwallis’s surrender. British defeated at Yorktown on October 20, 1781, marked the war’s end.
Peace negotiations, which began in June 1781, lasted more than two years. Treaty of Paris of 1783 recognized the independence of the United States, set borders for the new nation, and resolves some trade and settlement issues.
How did the French assist the Americans at Yorktown? - They helped plan strategy, provided troops and fleet to help trap Cornwallis’s forces.
The American Revolution Objectives: 1.How did foreign nations and individuals aid the Patriots?
France and Spain Victory at Saratoga convinced France that the American could win the war. In 1778 the Continental Congress approve an alliance with France. Spain joined the war against Britain in 1779. Bernardo de Galvez, governor of Spanish Louisiana, was a key Patriot ally. Individuals Marquis de Lafayette of France fought with the Patriots and gave them money. Officers from Poland provided military training and skill.
Continental Navy. Created by Continental Congress in 1775 Because of the navy’s small size, Patriot ships attacked individual British vessels instead of fighting large battles. A successful Captain John Paul Jones, originally from Scotland, captured many British supply ships. Won a major victory against the British warship Serapis in 1779
How did Baron Fredrich Von Steubon aid the Continental Army - drilled soldiers into a well-trained fighting unit What strategy did commanders in the Continental Navy use against the British - because navy was small, attached individual ships rather than fighting large battles.
Important Questions In what ways did women serve the patriot cause? - Running farms and business - Raising money for supplies - Sewing uniforms - Working as messengers, nurses, or spies - Serving in battle
The American Revolution Objectives: 1.Explain the ways that geography affected the Patriot strategy in the west?
Biography George Rogers Clark was a Virginian who had explored the frontier. Gathered soldiers from small towns, built an army, and attacked forts and towns. Kaskaskia British trading village located along the Mississippi River. Trading post enabled the British to maintain relations with American Indians, control the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, and supply British soldiers in Detroit. Clark’s troops took Kaskaskia in a surprise attack. More Success Clark convinced some American Indians to remain neutral Won the Battle of Vincennes in February 1779. Never captured Fort Detroit but weakened the British war effort in the west.
Why was Kaskaskia an important location in the war in the west? - Trading posts location enabled the British to maintain relations with American Indians, control the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, and supply troops in Detroit