2The American Revolution Chapter 7 History AliveThe American RevolutionPurpose:What: RebellionBy: Understanding how the Continental Army was able to win the war for independence from Great Britain.So: We understand how it affects our life.
3I. Introduction Essential Question: In the Beginning. How was the Continental Army able to win the war for independence from Great Britain.In the Beginning.Americans are excited.Americans are not ready for war.British are ready for war.Americans should lose.I. Introduction
5II. American Strengths and Weaknesses American WeaknessesFew SoldiersUntrained Army and MilitiasLimited money and resources/suppliesNo NavyAmerican StrengthsMany Americans supported the revolutionary cause.Fighting on home ground:Fighting for a cause in which they believedGeorge Washington
7I. Comparing Strengths and Weaknesses Great Britain’s Strengths .More Money and resources than the colonies.Well-trained armylargest navy in the world.More soldiersGreat Britain’s Weaknesses.Included some mercenaries, or hired soldiers, not dedicated to the British cause.Britain had to ship supplies across the Atlantic.Had to deal with hostile citizens
8Important QuestionsWhat military advantages did the British have over the colonists?Well trained army, largest navy in the worldWhat advantages did the colonists have over the British?Many Americans strongly supported the revolution, and they were fighting on home ground for a cause in which they believed.
9The American Revolution Ch 7The American RevolutionObjectives:1. How did different groups contribute to the war effort?
10IV. Great Britain Almost Wins the War African Americans and the War.
11IV. Great Britain Almost Wins the War Britain’s War StrategyWilliam Howe ordered to capture New York CityWashington leaves Boston to stop British in New York.African Americans and the War.What did the Declaration mean for slaves. Free, equal?African Americans already were involved. Not allowed in Continental Army.Washington and Southerners did not want slaves running away to join the army.1775 Lord Dunmore's Proclamation promised freedom to any slave who fought for the British.Continental Army began allowing free African Americans to enlist, and eventually some 5,000 joined
12IV. Great Britain Almost Wins the War Defeat in New YorkAmericans suffer great lose in Battles of New York.Howe thinks he won and allows Washington to escape.Fading Hope.Washington is run out of New York, New Jersey and into PA.Life was miserable for Continental Army and all seemed lost.Solders enlistment were up and the army was going home.
13Important QuestionsWhy did the Continental Army decide to allow free African Americans to enlist?In response to Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation, which offered freedom to any African American who fought for the British.
15The American Revolution Ch 7The American RevolutionObjectives:What were Washington’s strategies at Trenton and Princeton?
16V. A Pep Talk and Surprise Victories The Crisis.Victory at Trenton.
17V. A Pep Talk and Surprise Victories Victorious British offer pardon for surrender.The Crisis.Washington desperate to keep his army.Has Thomas Paine’s The Crisis read to army.He also plans a daring attack on Trenton to boost morale.Victory at Trenton.Washington’s army crossed the icy Delaware River on Christmas night of 1776.Arrive in Trenton the next morning to surprise the drunk Hessians.They capture Trenton and 800 Hessian mercenaries .Victory electrifies the Continental army who re-enlist.
19Victory in New Jersey Trenton Howe sent Hessians to New Jersey On Christmas night in 1776, Washington and 2,400 soldiers silently crossed the icy Delaware River.Washington led a surprise attack the next morning.Patriots won the Battle of Trenton in less than an hour.PrincetonWashington marched northeast to Princeton, New Jersey.The hard-fought Battle of Princeton ended in another victory for the Patriots.
20The American Revolution Ch 7The American RevolutionObjectives:Why was the Battle of Saratoga a turning point in the war?
27VI. The Tide Begins to Turn Early Strategy Changes.First strategy was to win one big battle.Washington changes strategy. Avoid big battles.He would be defensive and wear the British out.A New British Strategy.British change their strategy. Divide the colonies in half between New York and New EnglandJohn Burgoyne’s plan for dividing New England.He was attack from CanadaHowe would attack from the southAnother army from the west.
28VI. The Tide Begins to Turn Problems with Burgoyne’s plan.The map route looked easy but was not.Thick wilderness and lot of extra supplies slowed the army.General Howe did not go to Albany. He went to PhillyTurning PointBurgoyne makes it to Saratoga but it is meets the Continental Army.Burgoyne gets no help from other armies and is forced to surrender.Battle of Saratoga is first major victory. We get:France and Spain enter the war on our side.Boosts moraleEnds threat to New EnglandWinter at Valley Forge.Saratoga great victory but not the end. Cold winter of sufferingHowe still in Philly and Washington roamed the country.No food for Washington because Continental Money was worthless. British paid in gold.Baron Fredrich Von Steuben a Prussian officer trains the Army.Marquis de Lafayette a French noblemen helps with his service and money.
29Winter at Valley ForgeContinental army spent the winter of at Valley Forge, Pa.HardshipsMore than one fifth of the Continental Army died of disease and malnutrition.Some soldiers became angry and frustrated with the lack of supplies and pay.Veteran Prussian officer Baron Friedrich von Steubon drilled the Continental soldiers and helped turn them into well-trained group.
30Turning Point at Saratoga British Strategy for New EnglandGeneral John Burgoyne was to attack Fort Ticonderoga and then march south.A second force was to march east from Lake Ontario.General Howe’s troops were to march north from New York City.All three forces were to meet at Albany, New York.Howe defeated the Continental Army at the Battle of Brandywine Creek.SaratogaBurgoyne’s troops reached Albany before other forces didAs a result, Patriot forces outnumbered Burgonye’s and the Patriots won the Battle of Saratoga.Victory raised colonial morale and increased foreign support for the Revolution.
31Important QuestionsWhat effects did the America victory at Saratoga have?- Improved colonial morale- Increased foreign support for Patriots- Ended threat in New England- 1st Major victory and turning point
32The American Revolution Ch 7The American RevolutionObjectives:Describe how the war took place in the southern colonies?
33VII. The War Moves South . Saving the South A Trap at Yorktown Cornwallis Surrenders
35VII. The War Moves South British Change Strategy again. Move the war to the south which is full of Loyalists.Attack Savannah, Georgia and move north.Saving the SouthGuerrillas are soldiers who are not part of the regular army.Guerrillas keep Cornwallis from gaining control of the south.Francis Marion (The Swamp Fox) leads his band of men on hit-and-run attacks to harass the British.Washington send Nathanael Greene down south to slow the British.Greene’s army is to small so he gets Cornwallis to chase him through the country until Cornwallis tires and goes to Yorktown .A Trap at Yorktown5,000 French troops join Washington in New York and another 3,000 on the way.Washington secretly moves his army south to trap Cornwallis.The French navy blocks the Chesapeake Bay so Cornwallis can not be rescued.Washington and the French siege Yorktown and bombed it for days.Cornwallis SurrendersCornwallis hoped the British navy would rescue him.He finally realized he would not be rescued.On October 19, 1781 the British surrender.
36The War in the South British Strategy Focused on the southern colonies after defeat in the Battle of Saratoga.Freed slaves, who then assisted the British war effort.British VictoriesCaptured port cities of Savannah, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina.Defeated Patriot forces led by Horatio Gates at Camden, South Carolina.British victory at Camden destroyed the Patriots’ southern army.Patriots Fight BackPatriots switch to guerrilla warfare- swift hit and run attacks.Francis Marion, known as the Swamp Fox and a master of guerrilla warfare, led a group of soldiers that attacked British communications and supply lines.
37Important QuestionsHow did the Patriots respond to the destruction of their southern army?- They turned to guerrilla warfare.
38The American Revolution Ch 7The American RevolutionObjectives:Examine the events that finally ended the war?
40VIII. The War Ends Aftermath of the War. The Treaty of Paris. French war debt cause their own revolution.British hold on for two more years until support is gone.The Treaty of Paris.Britain recognized the United States of America.Britain gives up claims to all lands between Atlantic and Mississippi River.The U.S. agrees to return all rights and property taken from LoyalistsThe Impact of the American Revolution.Europe is inspired to create their own democracies.Leads to revolution is South America.
41Victory at Yorktown Difficult Times By 1781 the Patriots had run low on money to pay soldiers and buy supplies.Entry of foreign allies had not ended the war quickly, as the Patriots had hoped.Patriots lost morale when Benedict Arnold, a gifted officer, turned traitor.British controlled most of the south.YorktownLies on a peninsula in Virginia.British general Charles Cornwallis moved to Yorktown to attack a patriot force.In New York, General George Washington and French general Comte de Rochambeau planned a strategy to trap Cornwallis.The BattleFrench fleet took control of the Chesapeake Bay, which prevented Cornwallis from receiving reinforcements by sea.Combined American-French force, which was more than twice the size of Cornwallis’s forces, surrounded Cornwallis and put his forces under siege.After several weeks, Battle of Yorktown ended with Cornwallis’s surrender.British defeated at Yorktown on October 20, 1781, marked the war’s end.
42Treaty of ParisPeace negotiations, which began in June 1781, lasted more than two years.Treaty of Paris of 1783 recognized the independence of the United States, set borders for the new nation, and resolves some trade and settlement issues.
43Important QuestionsHow did the French assist the Americans at Yorktown?- They helped plan strategy, provided troops and fleet to help trap Cornwallis’s forces.
44The American Revolution Ch 7The American RevolutionObjectives:How did foreign nations and individuals aid the Patriots?
47Foreign Allies France and Spain Individuals Victory at Saratoga convinced France that the American could win the war.In 1778 the Continental Congress approve an alliance with France.Spain joined the war against Britain in 1779.Bernardo de Galvez, governor of Spanish Louisiana, was a key Patriot ally.IndividualsMarquis de Lafayette of France fought with the Patriots and gave them money.Officers from Poland provided military training and skill.
52The War at Sea Continental Navy. A successful Captain Created by Continental Congress in 1775Because of the navy’s small size, Patriot ships attacked individual British vessels instead of fighting large battles.A successful CaptainJohn Paul Jones, originally from Scotland, captured many British supply ships.Won a major victory against the British warship Serapis in 1779
53Important QuestionsHow did Baron Fredrich Von Steubon aid the Continental Army- drilled soldiers into a well-trained fighting unitWhat strategy did commanders in the Continental Navy use against the British- because navy was small, attached individual ships rather than fighting large battles.
54Important Questions In what ways did women serve the patriot cause? Running farms and businessRaising money for suppliesSewing uniformsWorking as messengers, nurses, or spiesServing in battle
55The American Revolution Ch 7The American RevolutionObjectives:Explain the ways that geography affected the Patriot strategy in the west?
58The War in the West Biography George Rogers Clark was a Virginian who had explored the frontier.Gathered soldiers from small towns, built an army, and attacked forts and towns.KaskaskiaBritish trading village located along the Mississippi River.Trading post enabled the British to maintain relations with American Indians, control the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, and supply British soldiers in Detroit.Clark’s troops took Kaskaskia in a surprise attack.More SuccessClark convinced some American Indians to remain neutralWon the Battle of Vincennes in February 1779.Never captured Fort Detroit but weakened the British war effort in the west.
59Important QuestionsWhy was Kaskaskia an important location in the war in the west?- Trading posts location enabled the British to maintain relations with American Indians, control the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, and supply troops in Detroit