Presentation on theme: "The Americans fought the British in the American Revolution and defeated them."— Presentation transcript:
The Americans fought the British in the American Revolution and defeated them.
The Declaration of Independence changed the nature of the American Revolution. What led to this?
Social Studies Standard 8.1.3: Analyze how the American Revolution affected other nations, especially France.
Loyalist: people who remained loyal to Britain. mercenary: a soldier who fights because he is being paid, not because he believes in the cause. alliance: an agreement between countries to aid an support one another
Fighting in the Middle Colonies Early Setbacks In March 1776, the British abandoned Boston and fighting shifted to the Middle Colonies. The Continental soldiers were poorly trained and often disorganized. Since they were volunteers, many soldiers felt free to return home at will. The British had a regular army and a powerful navy. They had support from Native American allies and hired German mercenaries, people who are paid to fight but may not believe in the cause.
Fighting in the Middle Colonies Early Setbacks In August 1776, the Continental army suffered a major defeat in New York. Over a period of weeks, the British drove the Continentals into New Jersey. Washington retreated into Pennsylvania, and Congress abandoned Philadelphia for Baltimore. On December 25, 1776, Washington led troops across the icy Delaware River to New Jersey, where they surprised a group of German mercenaries at Trenton. A few weeks later, the Continental army won another victory at Princeton.
Saratoga: A Turning Point The victory at Saratoga boosted Patriot confidence and convinced France that the colonists had a chance to win independence. In the summer of 1777, the British planned to move armies from the south, west, and north toward Albany, New York in order to gain control of the Hudson River. Control of the Hudson could have cut off the flow of soldiers and supplies from New England. Patriot forces blocked the army from the west. The southern army never reached the North.
The victory at Saratoga boosted Patriot confidence and convinced France that the colonists had a chance to win independence. The northern army, under General John Burgoyne was forced to fight the Continental soldiers and hundreds of local militia. The two forces collided in the Battle of Saratoga. Outnumbered and cut off from retreat, Burgoyne surrendered on October 17, 1777. In February 1778, France entered into an alliance, an agreement between countries to aid and support one another, with the United States.
Long Road To Victory The American victory at Yorktown marked the major battle of the war. The winter of 1777-78 was brutal for the Continental army. Washington’s forces were camped in bitter cold at Valley Forge. The Americans lacked food and equipment. As news of the suffering spread, Patriots from around the nation sent help. By the fall of 1781, the Americans had recaptured much of South Carolina.
Long Road To Victory The American victory at Yorktown marked the major battle of the war. The British, led by General Charles Cornwallis, moved north into Virginia. Cornwallis made the mistake of setting up a base at Yorktown, on a strip of land that juts into Chesapeake Bay.
Long Road To Victory The American victory at Yorktown marked the major battle of the war. Realizing that Cornwallis had placed himself into a trap, Washington rushed his forces south to Virginia, cutting off all escape routes for the British by land. The French fleet sailed to the coast and cut off British naval assistance. Cornwallis was forced to surrender at Yorktown.
Aftermath of the Revolution The American victory proved an inspiration to people in other nations, especially France. The loss of Cornwallis’s army convinced Parliament that the Americans could be defeated only at great cost. In 1782, the British met with three representatives from the U.S. to negotiate the Treaty of Paris, which ended the war and recognized American independence. The treaty set the new nation’s boundaries as Canada on the north, the Mississippi River on the west, and Florida on the south.
Aftermath of the Revolution The American victory proved an inspiration to people in other nations, especially France. The French citizens were outraged by the injustices of the French social system. Aristocrats lived lavishly, while poor people starved. In 1789, the French Revolution began. The success of the Americans inspired revolutionary leaders in Latin America to fight for independence from Spain.
What disadvantages did the Continental army have? poorly trained & disorganized Why was the Battle of Saratoga important? France entered into a formal alliance with the Americans.
How did the Americans win final victory? American land forces and the French fleet trapped the British in Yorktown, forcing Cornwallis to surrender. How did the American Revolution affect France? Inspired their own revolution.
HOMEWORK EXTENSION Write a detailed SUMMARY of the section and complete the UNANSWERED QUESTIONS section of your notes. Choose two of the remaining Depth & Complexity ICONS in your notes and explain how they relate to this section.