Presentation on theme: "Each motion had a limited range of movement"— Presentation transcript:
1Each motion had a limited range of movement Each motion had a limited range of movement. The types and ranges of movement differed.Different joints allow rotational movements, angular movements, and gliding movements.
2Chapter 10: Movement and Forces 10.1 The skeletal system provides movement and protection10.2 The muscular system makes movement possible10.3 Muscles exert forces10.4 Bones and joints at as levers
3d e b Match each definition with the terms. 1. a bony structure that allows rotation2. the skeleton division containing the skull3. the part of a bone that produces red blood cellsa. compact bone d. ball-and-socket jointb. axial skeleton e. marrowc. immovable jointdbe
4Muscles perform important functions Beating heart, moving food through your digestive system, blinking eyesSome movements are automatic, some you controlMuscles helpProduce movementregulate your body’s temperature (keep it stable)maintain your body’s posture
5MovementMuscular system – consists of skeletal muscles (attached to the skeleton)Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendonsMade of muscle fibers (many muscle cells)Contract – shorten / relax – lengthenMost muscles work in coordinate groupsBend arm and release: biceps/triceps coordination
6Maintaining Body Temperature Homeostasis: the balance of conditions in the bodyA muscle contracts releases heatShiver: quick muscle contractions release heat to warm your body
7Maintaining PostureGravity is pulling your body down, but most muscles are always a little bit contractedCalled tension, or muscle toneThis is present even when sleeping!Muscles make contracting and relaxing adjustments to keep you sitting or standingThese are automatic
8Types of Muscles All contract and relax Perform different functions Skeletalattached to the skeletonunder voluntary control.Smoothlocated in walls of some organsunder involuntary controlCardiaclocated in the walls of the heart
9Skeletal Muscles Attached to bones Help give the body its shape Voluntary/controlled movement ~ “voluntary muscles”Long fibers made of many bundles made of many cellsCells can have more than one nucleusSlow twitch – move slow but can sustain tension for longer periodsFast twitch – move quick but can only sustain tension for shorter periods
10Smooth Muscles Involuntary muscle Contracts slowly Walls of stomach and intestineshelps push food through the digestive systemAlso found in blood vesselshelps regulate blood pressure
11Cardiac Muscles Involuntary muscle Only found in the heart Each cardiac muscle cell is branchedcells connect in a chainThe chains form webs and layers that allow cardiac muscle cells to contract together and make the heart beat
12Checking in… What do the bundles that make up skeletal muscle do? One type allows muscles to move slowly and maintain tension for a long time. Another allows muscles to move more quickly and sustain tension for a shorter period.Why are skeletal muscles called voluntary muscles?They move when you want them to.Compare and contrast the three types of muscle: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.Skeletal muscles give the body shape and control movement. They are voluntary muscles. Smooth muscles contract without voluntary control. They are found in the walls of the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. Cardiac muscle moves without conscious control and is found only in the heart.
13Skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints allow bones to move Many skeletal muscles are attached to your bones by tendonsTendons: strong connective tissueMuscle contracts and shorten pull the tendon tendons pulls on the bone to make it moveHow do muscles move bones?Muscles can only contract orrelax. By contracting, they pull on the tendons.
14Movement Muscles must work together in coordinated groups Muscle groups produce movement in opposite directionsA muscle contracts and shortens – it exerts a forceCounterpart relaxesWhich muscles work together to bend and extend your leg?
15Muscular system + skeletal system + BRAIN! MovementLift your leg without bending your kneeWhich muscles must contract in order to keep your knee from bending?What if you point your toes?Some of the muscles in your leg are working to stabilize the jointsOther muscles are contracting to produce the controlled movementMuscular system + skeletal system + BRAIN!
16Muscles grow and healBaby neck muscles not strong enough to hold up headChildhood/adolescence: develop muscular coordination and become more graceful in their movementsExercise: muscles may get big# muscle fibers does NOT increasethickness of the muscle fibers and surrounding tissues increasesMuscles can become sore during or after exercise:During exercise the muscle cells may not receive enough oxygen for cellular respiration switch to fermentation for energyFermentation causes the buildup of lactic acid in muscles cramps or achesMuscles can also be damaged (overstretched or torn)