2 The Declaration of Independence Chapter 6The Declaration of IndependenceObjective:Identify the main ideas in the Declaration of Independence.Explain how Americans reacted to the Declaration Independence.Purpose:Understand: What principles of government are expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
3 Patrick Henry at Virginia House of Burgesses Gentlemen may cry, Peace, peace—but there is no peace. The war is actually begun. The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! What is it that gentlemen wish? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death!
4 Second Continental Congress To discuss what to do about the events of April 19th 1775
8 Chapter 6.2 The Colonists Organize an Army After Lexington and Concord New England militia surrounded Boston.Delegates to the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in May 1775.Decided not to break away from Britain.Sent Olive Branch PetitionGeorge Washington and the Continental Army.Created a Continental Army to defend the colonies.Unanimously selected George Washington as commander.
11 Chapter 6.2 The Battle of Bunker Hill Minutemen held Boston under siege- a situation in which soldiers surround a city or fort.Colonial forces gathered on Breeds Hill and Bunker Hill to fend off the British.Colonists defeated by the British on the third attempt at Battle of Bunker Hill.
12 Important QuestionsWhat effect do you think the victory at the Battle of Bunker Hill had on colonials attitudes?-it made colonists confident that they could win in their struggle against the British.
14 Chapter 6.2 General Washington Takes Command Army is disorganized, untrained and has not supplies.Send Henry Knox to Fort Ticonderoga to get needed artillery.Fort Ticonderoga is a British fort in upper New York.Benedict Around, Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys seize the fort easliy.Henry Knox loads 59 cannons and hauls them over 300 miles in the snow to Boston.
15 Chapter 6.2 The British Abandon Boston Washington places the cannons on Dorchester Heights.British decide to leave Boston. Some colonist believe the war is over. Washington know the war is far from over.
17 6.3 On the Eve of Independence The Olive Branch Petition A year past since Lexington and Concord and the retreat of the British from Boston.During that time people did little talk about Independence.The Olive Branch PetitionKing rejects the PetitionKing orders his army to bring the traitors to justicesPeople now begin to agree with Patrick Henry. Time for Independence!!!
19 6.3 a self-educated British Quaker Wrote Common Sense Paine wrote as a common person speaking to common peopleThomas Paine changes people minds. Calls for Independence in his pamphlet called Common Sense.He said that the people, not kings and queens, should make the lawsdemand their independenceInfluenced colonists’
20 Important QuestionsWhy did the delegates send the Olive Branch Petition to King George III?-to make it clear that even though they were forming an army, they still desired peace.
21 Important Questions1) Why did Common Sense become popular with the colonists?-Written in a style that common people could understand.2) What arguments did Paine make in his pamphlet?-The people, not Kings and Queens, should make laws; and the colonies should demand their independence from Great Britain.
23 6.4 Thomas Jefferson Drafts a Declaration Second Continental Congress created a committee to write a document declaring the colonies’ independenceThe committee: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman.Principles on Which to Base a New Government.Based his arguments on natural rights “unalienable rights”Government are formed to protect these rights. Government’s power comes from the people.If the government fails the people have the right to create a new government.The Kings CrimesKing George III had violated the colonists’ rights.The right to break away from Britain
24 6.5 The Final Break Debate over Slavery Independence Day July 2nd 1776 all but one colony voted for independence.John Adams said that this day will be celebrated by all generations.Debate over SlaveryAdams was wrong about the date because Congress wanted to make a few changes to the Declaration of Independence.The passage about slavery was a problem for some delagates.It was remove for the good of the cause.Independence DayJuly 4, 1776 approved Declaration of Independence, creating USA.The signers pledged “our Lives, our Fortunes, our sacred Honor.”They were committing treason.“We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.”
26 Choosing SidesColonists who chose to fight for independence became known as PatriotsLoyalistsThose who remained loyal to Great Britain were called Loyalists or Tories.More than 100,000 Loyalists fled the colonies during the Revolution
28 Other Reactions to the Independence WomenMany women were Patriots.The Declaration failed to mention women at all.Abigail Adams, the wife of John Adams, asked her husband to protect the rights of women.African AmericansThe Declaration did not recognize the rights of enslaved African Americans.The Revolution raised questions about whether slavery should exist in a land that valued liberty.The conflict over slavery continued long after the Revolutionary War had ended.The issue of slavery remained unsolved
29 Important QuestionsWhy did the American Revolution raise questions about slavery in the United States?- Colonists accusing Britain of violating their rights had to face the reality that African Americans in the United States were denied their unalienable rights.
31 Fifty-six delegates to the Second Continental Congress (mostly well educated, white men) signed the Declaration of Independence. Among the groups not represented in the Congress were African Americans, women, working classes, Loyalists, and American Indians.In fact, voting rights at the time were generally extended only to white male property owners, who made up one of every four colonists.An assortment of colonial flags are displayed on the wall. Each flag bears the red cross of St. George, a symbol of the colonies’ allegiance to Great Britain.• In the center of the flags is a drum, used in this era to keep a beat for marching soldiers. The drum symbolizes the state of war between Great Britain and the colonies.
32 Declaration of Independence What does the Preamble say?What are some key ideas expressed in the second paragraph of the Declaration?Look at the long list that begins with the words “He has refused his Assent.” What is this a list of, and why do you think it was included?