2The Revolution Begins The Big Idea The tensions between the colonies and Great Britain led to armed conflict in 1775.Main IdeasThe First Continental Congress demanded certain rights from Great Britain.Armed conflict between British soldiers and colonists broke out with the “shot heard ’round the world.”The Second Continental Congress created the Continental Army to fight the British.In two early battles, the army lost control of Boston but then regained it.
3First Continental Congress October,1774--Meeting in Philadelphia Main Idea 1: The First Continental Congress demanded certain rights from Great Britain.First Continental CongressOctober,1774--Meeting in PhiladelphiaDelegates from all colonies except Georgia attended.Meet in response to Intolerable Acts and the closing of Boston HarborConcerned about relationship between colonies and BritainDebate possibility of peaceful solutionResolve to continue to boycott trade with Britain and prepare the militia for war.
4Declaration of Rights 10 Resolutions for King George III Included the right to “life, liberty, and property.”Goal was not separation from BritainGoal = State concerns and ask King to correct the problemsPatrick Henry = one of first to promote independence (Famous speech: “…give me liberty or give me death!”Colonists who chose to fight for independence from Britain became known as Patriots.
5The Ride of Paul Revere Colonial militia preparations worried Britain Main Idea 2: Armed conflict between British soldiers and colonists broke out with the “shot heard ’round the world.”The Ride of Paul RevereColonial militia preparations worried BritainStockpile of weapons in Concord (20 miles from Boston)Massachusetts governor, Thomas Gage, sent British troops to seize weapons. Colonist learn of the plan-Robert Newman: climbs steeple at Old North Church to watch for British (“One if by land, two if by sea…”)Two lights! -- Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to warn colonists.Local militia, minutemen, get ready for battle.
7Battles at Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775– British troops arrived in Lexington and colonists fire the “shot heard ‘round the world.”They are badly outnumbered and quickly defeatedPaul Revere arrested – Samuel Prescott warns citizens at ConcordBritish Redcoats continue on to ConcordWeapons were hiddenBritish frustrated—burn buildingsMinutemen attack—Redcoats = Easy Target!British retreat back to Boston & colonist pursue
8King George refuses to address Declaration of Rights Main Idea 3: The Second Continental Congress created the Continental Army to fight the British.Second Continental CongressKing George refuses to address Declaration of RightsMay Delegates from twelve colonies met in PhiladelphiaFirst attempt at Republican government (A republican form of government –named after the Roman Republic--is a type of government in which the citizens have an active role in the government, and the government is not headed by a hereditary ruler such as a king.)Some called for peace, others for war.Compromised—created army but also sent Olive Branch Petition to King George IIIContinental Army
9Second Continental Congress (cont.) States to write new state constitutionsMassachusetts militia became the Continental Army.Virginian, George Washington, became commanderJuly 5—Olive Branch PetitionFinal attempt at peaceKing George III refuses
10Battle of Bunker Hill (a.k.a. Breed’s Hill) Main Idea 4: In two early battles, the army lost control of Boston but then regained it.Fort TiconderogaPatriots needed weaponsMay 10, 1775 – Benedict Arnold attacked British at Fort Ticonderoga to seize weapons. Colonial victory!Battle of Bunker Hill (a.k.a. Breed’s Hill)British trapped in BostonColonists fortified Breed’s Hill to prevent British escape from Boston.Army of 2,400 Redcoats fought 1,600 Americans at the Battle of Bunker Hill.Americans eventually ran out of ammo and were forced to retreat--but it proved their strengthMore than 1,000 British casualties.
12Dorchester HeightsGeneral Washington arrived in Boston and took command.Sends Colonel Henry Knox to get cannons from Fort Ticonderoga.March Washington moved his army to Dorchester Heights overlooking BostonCannons and troops positioned on Nook’s Hill—overlooking British General HoweThe British were forced to retreat.Colonists control Boston!