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The First World War Adapted from McIntyre at U.S. government WWI posters.

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Presentation on theme: "The First World War Adapted from McIntyre at U.S. government WWI posters."— Presentation transcript:

1 The First World War Adapted from McIntyre at U.S. government WWI posters

2 2 The First World War: War involving nearly all the nations of the world 1914-1918 What? When?

3 3 The First World War: Why? Long term causes: 1. Militarism 2. Alliance system 3. Imperialism 4. Nationalism (Memory tip: Think MAIN.) Short term cause: Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of the Austro- Hungarian Empire Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before their deaths, June 28, 1914. The assassination was the spark that ignited the war.

4 4 The First World War: Who? Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Russia France Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917) Central Powers:Allies: Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I

5 5 The First World War: Where? Map of Europe during WWI: Originally, Italy joined the Triple Alliance but after the war broke out, it switched sides and went to fight with the Triple Entente. Turkey later joined the Triple Alliance.

6 6 Why did it take so long for America to get involved in the war? America was isolationist. “Why should I get involved in someone else’s problems?” The Monroe Doctrine (1823) sought to isolate “the American continents” from European influences and problems. In this cartoon, “The Great Wall” (1914), the Monroe Doctrine is shown as a protective shield for the United States.

7 7 Thinking Slide: Is isolationism really an option for a country as powerful as the United States? What are the disadvantages of isolationism? What are the advantages?

8 8 Which side should the U.S. pick? 11 million German- Americans Irish-Americans hated Great Britain Close cultural ties to other allies American, England, and France’s economies were increasingly interdependent. Central Powers:Allies: US Exports to both sides:

9 9 What did it take to get the U.S. involved? 1. Blockades Britain blockaded (stopped) all German ships going to America. HMS Renown seen from another British warship (circa 1917)

10 10 What did it take to get the U.S. involved? 1. Blockades May, 1915: Germany told Americans to stay off British ships, and they could and would sink them. Germany torpedoed the Lusitania, sinking it with 1200 passengers and crew (including 128 Americans). It was eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of ammunition. The New York Times reports on the Lusitania’s sinking.

11 11 What did it take to get the U.S. involved? 1. Blockades The US sharply criticized Germany for its action. Germany agreed not to sink passenger ships without warning in the future. Note in bottle after Lusitania disaster

12 12 What did it take to get the U.S. involved? 2. Unlimited Submarine Warfare In 1917, Germany announced “unlimited submarine warfare” in the war zone. Otherwise, Germany’s blockade would not be successful. A British ship torpedoed by a German U-boat

13 13 What did it take to get the U.S. involved? 3. Zimmerman Note The U.S. intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico. It promised to give Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back to Mexico in return for an alliance and attacking the United States. The decoded Zimmerman Telegram

14 14 What did it take to get the U.S. involved? The Zimmerman Note and the sinking of four unarmed American ships led to a declaration of war. New York Journal (4/7/1917) announcing the declaration of war the previous day

15 15 How was the war looking for the allies? Russia left the war after its communist revolution in 1917. Russia’s withdrawal allowed Germany to fight a one- front war with all its troops concentrated on France (remember this point when you study WWII!). Not Good... Calling for a Communist revolution, anti-Tsarist protesters gather outside the Winter Palace in Petrograd, Russia, February 1917.

16 16 Convincing the American People Posters How do you think these posters helped to convince the American people that the war was a good idea?

17 17 Convincing the American People 1.Wilson had to convince American that this would be the “War to End All Wars.” 2.He had to convince American that beating the Germans and its allies would make the world safe for democracy. Idealism: 2 Goals For War On Christmas Eve 1914, German and English soldiers stopped fighting to celebrate Christmas. It started when German troops decorated their trenches and began singing Christmas Carols, particularly “Stille Nacth.” British troops opposite them began singing English Christmas Carols. The singing soon turned to shouts of Christmas cheer across the lines, eventually causing the troops to cross the No Man’s Land between the trenches. The two sides began to exchange small gifts between each other.

18 18 Convincing the American People Idealism: Fourteen Points President Wilson’s Fourteen Points was his vision for the future after the war, including freedom of the seas and a League of Nations to work for world peace. President Woodrow Wilson

19 19 What did the U.S. do to help? The U.S. provided the food, money, and fresh troops needed to win the war. Supplies: American troops march through London.

20 20 How did the war affect the U.S.? Women Women filled factory jobs Women’s war effort helped bring about passage of the 19th Amendment after the war giving women the right to vote. Black soldiers still served in segregated units. African Americans In the “Great Migration” thousands of African Americans moved to the North to work in factories.

21 21 How did the war affect the U.S.? Enforcing Loyalty Hatred of all things German spread across the U.S. For example “sauerkraut” was renamed “Liberty Cabbage.” The Espionage Act 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 punished those against the war, many of whom were labor leaders.

22 22 What ended the war? The Treaty of Versailles After the Central Powers were exhausted by the war, especially after the US began fighting, it sought an armistice (the end of fighting). The Treaty of Versailles (ver-sigh) was signed between the Allied powers and Germany. It took land away from Germany. It dismantled Germany’s military. It forced Germany to make reparations (payments) to the countries it harmed in the war. This treaty so destroyed the German economy and the morale of the German people, that within 20 years, they would start another world war.

23 23 Extend your learning: Movies All Quiet on the Western Front A Farewell to Arms Gallipoli Paths of Glory Wings Literature All Quiet on the Western Front A Farewell to Arms Johnny Got His Gun Under Fire

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