5IndustrializationThe men who became the industrial leaders of the time were often called the“Robber Barons” because they were only interested in making money.
6Industrialization 1. John D. Rockefeller- He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust.
7Industrialization 2. Jay Gould Cornelius Vanderbilt -American entrepreneurs who built their wealth in shipping and railroads.
8Industrialization 3. Philip Armour , Gustavus Swift -meat packing industry
9Industrialization4. J.P. Morgan-financier, investment banker and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
10Industrialization 5. Andrew Carnegie - earned most of his fortune in the steel industry founding the Carnegie Steel Company.- He also wrote “The Gospel of Wealth,” an essay promoting free market economy and the responsibilities of the self-made rich.
11IndustrializationAll of these robber barons were making lots of money, teaming up together creating Trusts and Monopolies. Trust - A method of grouping many companies and plants into one organization. Big industry became possible when the railroads created national markets.
12IndustrializationThe US government, and much of the nation, believed in the principles of:Laissez-Faire economics, which dictated that the economic market should run freely without government interference.So basically, the rich got richer and there were no consequences for their companies.
13Industrialization Besides big business and robber barons, there were also inventions the spurred the industrial age:X-Ray Machine Telephone Motion Picture Typewriter Light Bulb Power Grid Airplane Automobile Subway Phonograph Farm MachinesBessemer ProcessSteam Engine DrillDynamiteInternal Combustion engineSewing MachineSkyscraperElectric MotorBrooklyn BridgeRadioBarbed Wire
14IndustrializationBy 1900, the United States had become one of the greatest economic powers in the world.
15ImmigrationImmigrant - A person who leaves a country to settle permanently in another country.26 million foreign born people came to America from 1880 to 1920.
16ImmigrationImmigrants often left their homelands due to one of the following reasons:1. political tyranny2. religious persecution3. economic hardship4. opportunity and jobs in America5. personal reasons
17Immigration East Coast – Most immigrants landed in New York City at Ellis Island- in 1892 it was the official immigrant processing center.
18ImmigrationEast Coast - Most immigrants landed in New York City at Ellis Island. (1892 official immigrant processing center.).-West Coast: Angel Island in San Francisco( ) - Most U.S. newcomers were from British, German, Irish, and Scandinavian decent.( ) - Immigration was on the rise. Most came from Italy and Eastern Europe.
22Progressive Era Reform Movements of the Progressive Era: 1. American Federation of Labor (AFL-Samuel Rompers) - Labor Union2. United Mine Workers - Labor Union3. National Grange-Farmers. - Labor Union4. Interstate Commerce Act- est. Interstate Comm. Commission to regulate railroads.5. Anti-trusts - laws that prohibited monopolies and corruption in big business. Led to the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) & Clayton Antitrust Act (1914).
24Progressive Era6. Pullman Strike-1st successful labor strike against management.7. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) - est. Food and Drug Adm. (FDA) to protect consumers from unsafe food and medicine.8. Fed. Reserve Act (1913) - est. Fed. Reserve System.9. Fed. Trade Commission (1914) handles complaints of monopolies and unfair business practices.10. Tariffs protected U. S. industry from foreign business competition (Dingley Tariff-1897)
26Progressive Era11. Upton Sinclair - author of the book “The Jungle”. Book exposed the problems and unhealthy practices of the meat packing industry. (“Muckraker” - a journalists who wrote about the problems in society.)12. State and City Gov’t - “political machines” were in use. Ward bosses provided services in return for money and votes in local elections. Led to corruption.13. Education - 31 states required week of school (8-14 yrs old) by Increase in the number of students attending high school.
28Progressive Era14. Temperance movement - Alcohol was seen as the source of all the evil and corruption in society. Led to the 18th Amendment - banning the sale and consumption of alcohol.15. Civil rights - W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington encouraged African-Amer. to be educated and productive members of society. Race would end.Literacy tests, poll taxes, Jim Crow Laws kept Blacks segregated in America.16. Child Labor - children were cheap labor, worked long hrs. Laws limited hrs.
30Progressive EraPresident Teddy Roosevelt ( ) - Known as the “trust buster”-He worked hard to enforce antitrust laws.-He wanted every American to have a “Square Deal”
31Progressive Era-Conservation - President Roosevelt set aside 200 million acres of land to protect and manage the natural resources.-Preservation - President Roosevelt’s plan to keep some wilderness areas in their natural state
32Progressive Era Results of the Progressive Movements: -1890’s - Workers earned - $12 a week for hrs of hard labor-Men earned 42 cents per hour-Women earned 6 cents per hour-Children earned 2 cents per hour-quart of milk cost 6 cents / 1 pound of round steak costs 12 cents
34Progressive Era 1910’s - Workers earned - $1,156 per year New Home $3,395New Car - $950Gas - 9 centsMilk - 34 centsBread - 4 cents
35ImmigrationImmigrant - A person who leaves a country to settle permanently in another country.Exclusion Act (1882) - Forbid the Chinese from entering the U.S26 million foreign born people come to America from 1880 to 1920.
36ImmigrationEast Coast - Most immigrants landed in New York City at Ellis Island. (1892 official immigrant processing center.).-West Coast: Angel Island in San Francisco( ) - Most U.S. newcomers were from British, German, Irish, and Scandinavian decent.( ) - Immigration was on the rise. Most came from Italy and Eastern Europe.
38ImmigrationImmigrants often left their homelands due to one of the following reasons:1. political tyranny2. religious persecution3. economic hardship4. opportunity and jobs in America5. personal reasons
39ImmigrationThe U.S. government limited immigration to the literate.Following WWI, quota systems were established to limit the number of immigrants coming to America.
41ImperialismImperialism - Policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political and military power over a weaker country/territory.How to create an Empire:1. Buy it2. Take it buy force3. Make the land economically dependent on you
42Imperialism Imperialism- Purchase of Alaska from Russia by William Seward (“Sewards Folly”)Annexation of Hawaii
43Imperialism 1898 - Spanish American War The U.S. gov’t had long disapproved of Spanish rule in Cuba. Corrupt and cruel treatment by the Spanish gov’t kept people poor, without rights.-The U.S. gained Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The U.S. emerged as a World Power and adopted a policy of imperialism by extending its authority over seas.-Teddy Roosevelt became a national hero with the ‘Rough Riders’.
45Imperialism Imperialism under President Theodore Roosevelt: 1. philosophy - “speak softly and carry a big stick”.2. Open Door Policy - under Roosevelt the U.S. and Great Britain supported open trade with China.3. Treaty with Panama for $10 million (1903)- allows for the construction of the Panama Canal to begin. Canal helped Roosevelt to build his dream of a two ocean Navy.
47Imperialism4. Widened the meaning of the Monroe Doctrine with the Roosevelt Corollary. The U.S. might intervene in any Latin American country due to European interference.5. Gunboat Diplomacy- Roosevelt’s foreign policy in Latin America.6. Settled boundary disputes between Alaska and Canada.7. Helped end the Russo-Japanese War
48Imperialism Imperialism under President William H. Taft: 1. “Dollar Diplomacy”- influence Latin America and China through investments.
49Imperialism Imperialism under President Woodrow Wilson: 1. Civil War in Mexico killed 18 Americans.Pancho Villa killed numerous Americans in border raids in New Mexico. U.S. troops were sent in, but failed to capture him.
50Imperialism“Great War” begins (WWI). U.S. remains neutral4. Wilson believed in “Moral Diplomacy” - should Amer. get involved in a foreign war.5. April U.S. declares war - “Make the World Safe for Democracy.”