Presentation on theme: "PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day 2010 Improving Performance."— Presentation transcript:
PDHPE HSC Enrichment Day 2010 Improving Performance
Concept Map of Focus Questions Application to Athlete Eamon Sullivan (Short Distance Swimmer) How do Athletes Train for Improved Performance? Anaerobic training (power and speed) Flexibility training What are the Planning Considerations for Improving Performance? o Initial planning considerations o Planning to avoid overtraining What Ethical Issues are Related to Improviing Performance? o Use Of Drugs o Use Of Technology
Profile of Case Study Athlete: Short Distance Swimmer Eamon Sullivan Main events: 50m freestyle, 100m freestyle, 4 x 100m medley Training: Power and speed training (including resistance), flexibility, skills Personal best: 50m freestyle sec (WR); 100m freestyle sec (WR)
Anaerobic Training 1. Resistance Training Beneficial for all athletes. Resistance for power and speed training should be 30-70% of 1 RM 2-3 sets with 6-8 repetitions performed at a high speed Examples for a speed swimmer = leg press, hamstring curls, calf raises, chest press, lateral pull-down, cable tricep pull-down, bicep curls 2. Short Interval Alternating short bursts of intense activity with periods of rest or recovery to allow ATP stores to restore. 3. Plyometrics Lengthening of a muscle performing an eccentric contraction followed quickly by its shortening through a concentric contraction Speed swimming demands an explosive start, powerful push-offs from the wall during turns, and sprint finishes
Flexibility Training 1.Static stretching – stretching a muscle to a certain point for seconds 2.Dynamic stretching – uses momentum and active muscular effort to bring about a stretch. 3.Ballistic stretching – involves the use of motion or bouncing to enhance the stretch 4.PNF stretching - static stretch followed by an isometric contraction (in opposite direction while in the stretched position) followed by a repeat of the original static stretch
Initial Planning Considerations 1. Performance and Fitness Needs Individual Planning Considerations Team Planning Considerations Physical fitness level Skill level Fitness and skill level needed to succeed Arousal level Motivation level Short and long term goals Recovery days Team goals Each swimmer’s strongest event Each swimmer’s strengths/weaknesses Training days and venues Recovery days 2.Schedule of Events/Competitions Yearly training plans for swimmers should be based around all the competition events throughout the year. Coaches need to ensure athletes peak at the right time. 3. Climate and Season For indoor events, such as swimming, it is necessary to ensure adequate ventilation on hot, humid days.
Planning to Avoid Overtraining Overtraining = a chronic psychological and physiological condition caused by an amount of training that is too demanding for an athlete to manage. It leads to ‘burnout’. Better attention to amount and intensity of training when planning training programs for athletes is essential.
Overtraining Issues How much training is too much? What are the signs of overtraining in athletes? What strategies can be taken to reduce overtraining in athletes? Physiological Signs and Symptoms Psychological Considerations and Symptoms Lethargy Injury Loss of strength, coordination, aerobic capacity Loss of weight Constant muscle soreness Early onset of fatigue when training and competing Loss of motivation Reduced commitment Sleep disturbances Depression Irritability Emotionally sensitive
Use of Drugs in Sport Drugs can be used to: Enhance strength (human growth hormone; anabolic steroids) Enhance aerobic performance (EPO) Mask other drugs (diuretics; alcohol) Dangers of drug use in sport include: Physical effects such as cancer, hypertension, kidney and liver tumors, reduced fertility, mood swings, aggression and depression Loss of reputation Loss of income resulting from loss of sponsorships Why may some elite athletes risk taking performance enhancing drugs, despite such dangers? There is a long history of drug use in sport
Drug Testing What are the pros and cons of drug testing?
Use of Technology – Training Innovation Training innovation: an aid that assists training and competition performance Lactate threshold devices – used to determine the point at which blood lactate starts to accumulate rapidly
Biomechanical analysis – used to explore movements in detail so as to monitor and improve an athlete’s technique. Measures include video analysis, slow motion replays, and photography.
Use of Technology Equipment Advances The high technology Speedo LZR Racer swimsuits athletes wore at the Beijing Olympics in 2008 Australian Fanny Durack wears a long woollen swimsuit with a skirt in 1912, when women were first allowed to swim in the Olympic Games.Fanny Durack
. TECHNOLOGY USE IN SPORT ETHICAL ISSUES Has technology gone too far? Has access to technology created unfair competition?