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Institutions of Government – the Presidency

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1 Institutions of Government – the Presidency
AP Government Review Institutions of Government – the Presidency

2 22nd Amendment Why was it adopted? What is the term limits?
FDR’s four term stint What is the term limits? Two terms, not more than 10 years

3 25th Amendment What is this amendment also known as?
Presidential disability amendment What does this establish? Vice President succeeds the president Vacancy in VP slot means president can appoint a VP with majority consent of both houses of Congress President can inform both houses if he will be incapacitated so VP can take over If President can’t let Congress know, VP and majority of Cabinet can so VP can take over

4 Informal Sources of Presidential Power
To whom does the President make legislative recommendations? Congress What does he do as Chief of Party? Leads his political party Why is executive privilege important? To protect his actions from Congressional oversight How is the President a lobbyist? He “lobbies” Congress to implement his agenda

5 Constitutional Powers of the Vice President
What is the only job for the VP listed in the Constitution? President of the Senate When is the only time the VP can vote in the Senate? To break a tie

6 Executive Office of the President
List the components of the Executive Office Office of the President Office of the Vice President Office of Management and Budget Office of Administration U.S. Trade Representative Various policy development offices, such as National Security Council National Economic Council Domestic Policy Council Office of Science, Technology, and Space Office of Environmental Policy National Drug Council

7 White House Chief of Staff
What IS the Chief of Staff? President’s closest advisor Does this position require Senate confirmation? No Why is the Chief of Staff often called the “gatekeeper”? He coordinates the day-to-day schedule of the president. Who is often considered the strongest man to ever hold this position? H.R. Halderman – President Nixon’s Chief of Staff

8 National Security Advisor
What does this person do? Provides daily security briefings to the president along with other key security personnel. Historically, what promotions do National Security Advisors receive? Advancement to Secretary of State Examples: Kissinger for Nixon Rice for GW Bush

9 White House Staff What does the White House Staff do?
Make up the personnel that run the White House and advise the president Do these advisers need Senate approval? No What are some positions included in the White House Staff? Chief of Staff Press Secretary Councils to the President Personal aides Ancillary people such as White House Cook Secretaries to the President and the First Lady How did the President choose these people? Most worked with him during the election How does he know it’s okay to talk with them about national matters? They are also protected by executive privilege

10 White House Press Secretary
What does this person do? Works out of the office of communications and is the chief White House spokesperson to communicate directly with the media Does this job need Senate confirmation? No How does this Press Secretary try to control the flow of information out of the White House? Tries to set the agenda on a daily basis Holds daily press briefings

11 Office of Management and Budget
Does the director of the OMB need Senate confirmation? Yes What is the main responsibility of the OMB? Assist the president in overseeing the preparation of the federal budget and supervise its administration after the budget is passed by Congress List two other jobs of the OMB. Evaluates the effectiveness of bureaucratic agencies and sets funding priorities Issues reports and recommends legislation related to budget priorities.

12 Council of Economic Affairs
How many people are on the council and do they need Senate confirmation? Three, yes What is the main job of the council? Advise the president in the preparation of economic reports Gathers information about economic developments and trends Recommends national economic policies that promote free enterprise and further national employment Recommends economic legislation that would achieve the economic goals of the administration

13 President’s Cabinet How is this group part of the “unwritten Constitution”? Based on practice, precedent, and tradition even though the Constitution does mention “executive departments” Who began this tradition, precedent, or practice? George Washington Do they need Senate confirmation? Yes Who creates new cabinet positions? President requests, Congress approves

14 Secretaries of State, Defense, & Veterans Affairs
What is the job of the Secretary of State? Be the diplomatic representative for the president in foreign affairs & assist in formulating foreign policy. What is the job of the Secretary of Defense? Oversee the military and assist the president in formulating military policy Supervises the Joint Chiefs of Staff Works in the Pentagon What is the job of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs? He/she is responsible for all matters related to veterans including benefits

15 Attorney General & Secretary of Homeland Security
What is the job/role of the Attorney General? Enforces all federal laws Heads the Department of Justice Is called the “nation’s lawyer” Works with the Solicitor General to arguing cases before the Supreme Court What agencies are included in the Department of Justice? Civil Rights Division Drug Enforcement Administration Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives FBI U.S. Marshals Service What is the job of the Secretary of Homeland Security? Protect the U.S. from attacks What agencies are included in Homeland Security? Immigration and Naturalization Customs and Border Patrol Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Transportation Security Administration U.S. Coast Guard

16 Secretaries of Treasury and Housing & Urban Development
What is the main job of the Secretary of Treasury? Act as the principle economic advisor to the president What is he/she responsible for? Formulating and recommending domestic and international financial, economic, and tax policy and overall fiscal policies that have an impact on the economy. Chairman of the President’s Economic Council Oversees the U.S. mint What about the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development? Advises the president on matters related to housing urban development

17 Secretaries of Agriculture and the Interior
What’s the Secretary of Agriculture responsible for? Matters related to agriculture, farming, food, and rural development What agencies does the Department of Agriculture include? U.S. Forest Service U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service What else? Coordinates the Food Stamp program Works closely with nation’s farmers What agencies are included in the Department of Interior? Bureau of Indian Affairs U.S. Geological Survey National Park Service

18 Secretaries of Commerce and Transportation
What’s the Secretary of Commerce mainly responsible for? Matters related to promoting economic growth, trade and the improvement of business and industry Gathering economic and demographic data for businesses What other agencies are a part of the Department of Commerce? National Weather Service Bureau of the Census Patent and Trademark Office What about the Secretary of Transportation? He’s responsible for all matters related to transportation and the nation’s infrastructure What agencies are also part of the Department of Transportation? Federal Aviation Administration Federal Highway Administration National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

19 Secretaries of Labor & Energy
What’s the Sec. of Labor do? He’s responsible for issues related to labor unions and laws involving workplace issues What other agencies are part of the Department of Labor? Bureau of Labor Affairs Employees Compensation Appeals Board Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) What’s the Sec. of Energy do? He’s responsible for matters related to energy resources including nuclear energy and energy conservation

20 Secretaries of Health & Human Services and Education
What’s the Sec. of H&H Services do? He’s responsible for all matters related to the health of U.S. citizens What other agencies are part of H&H Services? Administration of Aging Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Food and Drug Administration National Institutes of Health What about the Sec. of Education? Deals with matters of national education policy Oversees No Child Left Behind Sees that all federal laws and grants dealing with education are implemented.

21 State of the Union Address
Why does the President deliver this message? Article II, section 3 of the Constitution requires him to do this How has this been delivered to Congress? Washington to Taft – written report Wilson on – speech Coolidge – since him it’s been nationally broadcast to the American people What’s this speech do? Outlines the president’s agenda and motivate the Congress to adopt his proposals How does the opposition respond? They are interviewed immediately following the speech – kind of like a rebuttal

22 Bully Pulpit What’s this?
Coined by Teddy Roosevelt to explain how he could use the White House to promote his policies How do modern presidents use the bully pulpit? They use the media to communicate with the people Reagan – began Saturday morning radio broadcasts Clinton & GW Bush – held town meetings Others have spoke to special-interest groups that support the policies they support

23 Line Item Veto What is this? When did this go into effect?
Gives the president the authority to selectively veto portions of the 13 appropriations bills that are passed by Congress and make up the federal budget When did this go into effect? With the Republican Contract with America and signed into law by Clinton in 1996 Is it still in use? No, it was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

24 Executive Order & Executive Agreement
What are Executive Orders? Have the force of law and do not need congressional approval unless appropriations are needed to carry out the order Examples: Truman’s integration of the military Kennedy’s creation of the Peace Corps Clinton’s “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” military policy Executive Agreements are… Agreements made with foreign countries that DO NOT need Senate approval Example: - Trade Agreements

25 Executive Privilege Why does the president use this?
A power that allows the president to protect the privacy interests of the executive branch In what area is it mainly used? Foreign policy What did Nixon, Clinton, and GW Bush try to protect? Nixon – Watergate info Clinton – Monica Lewinsky affair GW Bush – firing of U.S. Attorneys

26 Signing Statements When are these used? What do they do?
When he signs a bill into law What do they do? Explain his view about the legislation Why are they controversial? Critics say they change the intent of the law

27 U.S. v. Nixon Facts: Issue: Decision:
Grand jury investigating Watergate wanted the tapes Nixon kept of all conversations in his office once they learned of them Nixon refused to turn them over claiming executive privilege Issue: Was executive privilege justified? Decision: Supreme Court ruled refusal violate separation of powers because executive privilege could be claimed in issues of national security, not general privacy

28 Impeachment of the President
What is impeachment? Formal charges brought by the House of Representatives stating the President is guilty of a high crime or misdemeanor Steps: 1. House Judiciary Committee brings articles of impeachment to the full house 2. Whole House votes – majority “yes” means Senate convenes and conducts the trial 3. Chief Justice of the U.S. comes over to preside Who’s been impeached? Andrew Johnson Bill Clinton

29 Impeachment of Bill Clinton
Who was the Special Investigator appointed by the Attorney General? Kenneth Starr What were the charges against Clinton? Perjury and obstruction of justice What happened? Senate failed to convict Clinton

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