Presentation on theme: "Safe as Houses: investigating OTs’ ethical development Jani Grisbrooke University of Southampton."— Presentation transcript:
Safe as Houses: investigating OTs’ ethical development Jani Grisbrooke University of Southampton
Daily Ethics Your best friend (female) has acquired a designer label outfit and asks you if it makes her look fat. Sadly, it does. What do you tell her, and more importantly, why?
Approaches to Daily Ethics Deontology Consequentialism Virtue
Ethics and law Should fox hunting with dogs be banned? Should cannabis be available in chemist shops?
Why OTs recommend Interested in how people do their valued occupations and carry out valued roles Look at this in social dimension Look at this in physical dimension Look at this in spatial dimension Consider foreseeable future – time dimension Look at this in design of objects in use Look at this in analysis of task
Why ethics Negotiation between world views: Personal ethics Professional values Service user values Organisational norms
2 strands to follow Personal ethics a matter for the individual Professional ethics a matter for the community of practice
Choosing a design Tapping into reflective CPD groups Individual interviews Ethical approval
CPD sessions Would one of you like to begin by telling the story of an adaptation case which you had to wrestle with or felt uncomfortable about?
Starting the interviews How do you think you developed a sense of fairness?
Analysing the data Literary critical approach Close reading Identifying characteristics of ethical reasoning within dialogical practice Identifying ethical qualities within Bildungsroman
Group dialogue in practice Mix of deontological, consequentialist and virtue ethics approaches Practical reasoning – phronesis (Sen) Contextualised view (Gilligan) Dialogical practice changing reasoning (Wenger, Bakhtin)
Individuals No problem articulating ethical development All had rationales to ground articulation Each one specific to the person and life story Each one had an ethical ‘flavour’ – truth, justice, kindness Still developing through dialogue - not finished (unfinalized)
Acting with virtue Bildungsroman - education for living well Aristotelian development of character Political framework, countering injustice, promoting justice Religious framework, fidelity, truth Discomfort with ‘virtue’ perhaps misunderstanding the nature of it?
Empathy in practice A notable feature in both group and individual transcripts Accounts for imaginative leap into the world of the other Necessary for clinical reasoning to occur Accounts for some of the emotional labour Necessary for assessment and implementation
Empathy is Clear sighted not fuzzy Accounts for ability to move alongside client and stand back for professional judgement Operated for colleagues as well Accounts for depth of dialogical exchange Able to act as a whole self but also as disparate parts which might belong to others (wave and particle)
So what? Dialogue IS practice therefore time needed for community practice Empathy as a virtue is a skill and a value and appears to underpin clinical reasoning Practical reasoning describes OT ethical practice better than application of universalist principles
Narrative reasoning The OT’s task is to take the episodes of action within a clinical encounter and structure them into a coherent plot. A plot is what gives unity to an otherwise meaningless succession of one thing after another…When a therapeutic process has been successfully emplotted, it goes somewhere, it is driven and shaped by a ‘sense of an ending’. (Mattingly, p246)
Unfinalizability (Mattingly/Bakhtin) Good stories are never only open to one reading but allow for interaction with multiple readers – what does it mean, how does it end, could it end another way? Good clinical emplotment is unfinalized by the therapist, allowing the person to interpret and drive the plot forward himself Are task driven management plots completely finalised – eligibility established, service provided ‘end of’… ?
Implication for professionals Keeping to the professional bounds of narrative but remaining imaginatively open and unfinalized requires professional accountability for the process within the community of practice That’s why supervision is so important New therapists need another more experienced narrative reasoner Experienced therapists need another experienced therapist All therapists need dialogical opportunities to open their practice to each other
References Gilligan C (1977) In a different voice: women’s conception of self and morality. Harvard Educational Review 47 (4) 418-517 Mattingly C (1998) Healing Dramas and Clinical Plots. The Narrative Structure of Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press Mattingly C, Hayes Fleming M (1994) Clinical Reasoning. Forms of Inquiry in a Therapeutic Practice. Philadelphia: FA Davis Ryan SE, McKay EA (1999) Thinking and Reasoning in Therapy. Narratives from Practice. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes Sen A (2009) The Idea of Justice. London: Allen Lane/Penguin Wenger E (1998) Communities of Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press