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AS Unit 2 Rules of the GAME. Every mark counts THE EXAM All questions are compulsory. The answer booklet dictates how much you write. Your answers are.

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Presentation on theme: "AS Unit 2 Rules of the GAME. Every mark counts THE EXAM All questions are compulsory. The answer booklet dictates how much you write. Your answers are."— Presentation transcript:

1 AS Unit 2 Rules of the GAME

2 Every mark counts

3 THE EXAM All questions are compulsory. The answer booklet dictates how much you write. Your answers are clipped when they are marked. Write in black felt liner

4 THE EXAM One extended writing question where QOWC marks are allocated. 72 marks for the whole paper in 90 minutes i.e. about 1 ¼ minutes per mark – 4 mark question = 5 minutes Can I use bullet points?

5  Questions are set from the specification.  Don’t rely on textbooks.  For each topic know the SPECIFICATION.  For each topic be aware of POSSIBLE questions.  Use past papers.  Write your own questions. GETTING INTO THE MIND OF THE PRINCIPAL EXAMINER Specification Conformity (majority influence) and explanations of why people conform, including informational social influence and normative social influence. Types of conformity, including internalisation and compliance. Obedience to authority, including Milgram’s work and explanations of why people obey.

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7 Patterns

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9 QT 1 Simple selection Only 50% of students got this right. If you tick too many your answer is null and void. Answer strategies?

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11 QT 2 Short description Outline two explanations of why people obey. (2 marks + 2 marks) Outline what is meant by Type A behaviour. (2 marks) Outline a method used by psychologists to assess whether someone shows Type A behaviour. (2 marks) Outline what is meant by Type A behaviour. (2 marks) Outline a method used by psychologists to assess whether someone shows Type A behaviour. (2 marks) Outline two definitions of abnormality. (3 marks + 3 marks) What is meant by informational social influence. (3 marks)

12 QT 2 Short description What is meant by informational social influence. (3 marks) When people conform because of a desire to be right. For example in Asch’s study participants felt the others must be right so they went along with a wrong answer. In some situations this leads to a change of private as well as public opinion. = 45 words

13 QT 2 Short description Outline what is involved in stress inoculation therapy. (3 marks) What is stress inoculation therapy? (3 marks)

14 QT 2 Short description What is involved in stress inoculation therapy? (3 marks)

15 Unit 2 Biological Psychology: StressShort description (2-3 marks) Stress as a bodily response The body’s response to stress, including the pituitary adrenal system and the sympathomedullary pathway in outline. Stress-related illness and the immune system. Stress in everyday life Life changes and daily hassles as sources of stress. Workplace stress including the effects of workload and control. Personality factors, including Type A and Type B behaviour, hardiness. Psychological and biological methods of stress management, including stress inoculation therapy and drug therapy. Pituitary adrenal system Sympathomedullary pathway (Stress-related illness) (Immune system) Life changes Daily hassles Workplace stress Workload Control in relation to workplace stress Type A Type B Hardiness Stress inoculation therapy (6 marks) Drug therapy (6 marks) 6 markers How as well as what

16 Unit 2 Social Psychology: Social influenceShort description (2-3 marks) Social influence Conformity (majority influence) and explanations of why people conform, including informational social influence and normative social influence. Types of conformity, including internalisation and compliance. Obedience to authority, including Milgram’s work and explanations of why people obey. Social influence in everyday life Explanations of independent behaviour, including locus of control and how people resist pressures to conform and resist pressures to obey authority. How social influence research helps us understand social change; the role of minority influence in social change. Conformity (majority influence) Informational social influence Normative social influence Internalisation Compliance Obedience to authority Independent behaviour Locus of control Social change Minority influence

17 Unit 2 Individual differences: Psychopathology (abnormality) Short description (2-3 marks) Defining and explaining psychological abnormality Definitions of abnormality, including deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately and deviation from ideal mental health, and limitations associated with these definitions of psychological abnormality. The biological approach to psychopathology. Psychological approaches to psychopathology including the psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive approaches. Treating abnormality Biological therapies, including drugs and ECT. Psychological therapies, including psychoanalysis, systematic de-sensitisation and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Deviation from social norms Failure to function adequately Deviation from ideal mental health Biological approach to psychopathology Psychodynamic approach to … Behavioural approach to … Cognitive approaches approach to … Drugs ECT Psychoanalysis Systematic de-sensitisation Cognitive Behavioural Therapy 6 markers How as well as what 6 markers

18 QT 3 Differences Explain how informational social influence differ from normative social influence. (4 marks) Explain how the behavioural approach to abnormality differs from the psychodynamic approach. (4 marks)

19 QT 3 Differences Explain how informational social influence differ from normative social influence. (4 marks) Information SI is about being right. For example … Normative SI is about wanting to be liked. For example … Information SI is about being right. For example … Normative SI is about wanting to be liked. For example … Information SI is about being right whereas normative SI is about wanting to be liked. For example in Asch’s study it might appear that the reason for conformity was wanting to be right but in fact the participants might have conformed because they were concerned about what the others thought. Information SI is about being right whereas normative SI is about wanting to be liked. For example in Asch’s study it might appear that the reason for conformity was wanting to be right but in fact the participants might have conformed because they were concerned about what the others thought.

20 A theory = an inter-related collection of facts

21 QT 4 Longer description Using your knowledge of psychology, explain why some people might resist pressures to conform. (4 marks) Explain one or more reasons why people obey authority. (6 marks) Outline the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) Outline the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology. (6 marks)

22 Unit 2 Biological Psychology: StressLong description (6 marks) Stress as a bodily response The body’s response to stress, including the pituitary adrenal system and the sympathomedullary pathway in outline. Stress-related illness and the immune system. Stress in everyday life Life changes and daily hassles as sources of stress. Workplace stress including the effects of workload and control. Personality factors, including Type A and Type B behaviour, hardiness. Psychological and biological methods of stress management, including stress inoculation therapy and drug therapy. The body’s response to stress (= pituitary adrenal system + sympathomedullary pathway) Explain the relationship between stress and illness Stress inoculation therapy Drug therapy

23 Unit 2 Social Psychology: Social influenceLong description (6 marks) Social influence Conformity (majority influence) and explanations of why people conform, including informational social influence and normative social influence. Types of conformity, including internalisation and compliance. Obedience to authority, including Milgram’s work and explanations of why people obey. Social influence in everyday life Explanations of independent behaviour, including locus of control and how people resist pressures to conform and resist pressures to obey authority. How social influence research helps us understand social change; the role of minority influence in social change. Explain why people conform (= informational social influence + normative social influence) Outline types of conformity (= Internalisation + compliance) Explain why people obey Explain why people resist pressures to conform (= explain independent behaviour) Explain why people resist pressures to obey (= explain independent behaviour) Explain how social influence research helps us to understand social change Explain how minority influence helps us to understand social change

24 Unit 2 Individual differences: Psychopathology (abnormality) Long description (6 marks) Defining and explaining psychological abnormality Definitions of abnormality, including deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately and deviation from ideal mental health, and limitations associated with these definitions of psychological abnormality. The biological approach to psychopathology. Psychological approaches to psychopathology including the psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive approaches. Treating abnormality Biological therapies, including drugs and ECT. Psychological therapies, including psychoanalysis, systematic de-sensitisation and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Outline definitions of abnormality (= deviation from social norms + failure to function adequately + deviation from ideal mental health) Biological approach to … Psychodynamic approach to … Behavioural approach to … Cognitive approaches approach … Drugs ECT Psychoanalysis Systematic de-sensitisation Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

25 Six marks worth Outline biological methods of stress management. (6 marks) Outline biological methods of stress management. (6 marks) marks is about 150 words or 6 points of about 25 words. 6 marks is about 150 words or 6 points of about 25 words.

26 26 Why it works Produces a précis of text. Gives you the coat pegs. not Ensures you learn just the right amount (not too much or too little). And assists recall. Produces a précis of text. Gives you the coat pegs. not Ensures you learn just the right amount (not too much or too little). And assists recall. A prècis is a summary where one cuts out less important material leaving the key bits. golden nuggets. A prècis is a summary where one cuts out less important material leaving the key bits. golden nuggets.

27 AO1 Description Description (AO1) MarksDetailKnowledge and understanding Selection of appropriate material Presentation of information 6Accurate and reasonably detailed SoundAppropriate Clear and coherent 5-4Generally accurate, less detailed RelevantSome evidenceAppropriate 3-2BasicSome relevantLittle evidenceAppropriate 1Very brief/flawed Very littleLargely or wholly inappropriate

28 Good AO1 is DETAILED The devil is in the detail ‘Repression is when you don’t remember certain events.’ More detail: ‘Repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’ Even more detail: ‘According to Freud (1918) repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’ ‘Repression is when you don’t remember certain events.’ More detail: ‘Repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’ Even more detail: ‘According to Freud (1918) repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’

29 Not the same as research methods!

30 Outline how one research study investigated the effects of control of on workplace stress. (4 marks) QT 5 Research studies HOW Outline what research has shown about how people resist pressures to conform. (4 marks) Describe one or more studies of workplace stress. (5 marks) Outline what research has shown about personality factors in stress. (4 marks) Describe one research study that has investigated stress in the workplace. In your answer you should include details of what was done and what was found. (4 marks) WHAT SHOW

31 You MUST know one study well for the long description questions. You SHOULD know a 2 nd study for essay questions. You COULD learn about a 3 rd study. This would give you 2 or 3 marks AO1 for an essay. This would give you about 4 out of 6 marks AO1. This could make it up to 6 out of 6 marks. Avoid confabulation 1 ½ studies Describe and evaluate research into conformity. Describe research into conformity.

32 Unit 2 Biological Psychology: StressResearch studies Stress as a bodily response The body’s response to stress, including the pituitary adrenal system and the sympathomedullary pathway in outline. Stress-related illness and the immune system. Stress in everyday life Life changes and daily hassles as sources of stress. Workplace stress including the effects of workload and control. Personality factors, including Type A and Type B behaviour, hardiness. Psychological and biological methods of stress management, including stress inoculation therapy and drug therapy. Stress-related illness and the immune system. Life changes Daily hassles Workplace stress – effects of workload Workplace stress – effects of control Personality factors, Type A and Type B behaviour Not CHD 1 ½ studies

33 Unit 2 Social Psychology: Social influenceResearch studies Social influence Conformity (majority influence) and explanations of why people conform, including informational social influence and normative social influence. Types of conformity, including internalisation and compliance. Obedience to authority, including Milgram’s work and explanations of why people obey. Social influence in everyday life Explanations of independent behaviour, including locus of control and how people resist pressures to conform and resist pressures to obey authority. How social influence research helps us understand social change; the role of minority influence in social change. Conformity (majority influence) Obedience to authority, including Milgram’s work Locus of control How people resist pressures to conform How people resist pressures to obey authority The role of minority influence in social change 1 ½ studies

34 Unit 2 Individual differences: Psychopathology (abnormality) Research studies Defining and explaining psychological abnormality Definitions of abnormality, including deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately and deviation from ideal mental health, and limitations associated with these definitions of psychological abnormality. The biological approach to psychopathology. Psychological approaches to psychopathology including the psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive approaches. Treating abnormality Biological therapies, including drugs and ECT. Psychological therapies, including psychoanalysis, systematic de-sensitisation and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Research studies might be used as evaluation … but then description of the studies is less important.

35 Explain what psychological research has shown about the stressful impact of either life changes or daily hassles. (4 marks) 35 What’s the catch? EXAM QUESTION

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37 QT 6 Criticisms, strengths limitations … evaluation The three point rule Evaluate the biological approach to abnormality. (6 marks) 5 a. Name one psychological method of stress management. (1 mark) 5 b. Explain strengths of this psychological method of stress management. (5 marks) 5 a. Name one psychological method of stress management. (1 mark) 5 b. Explain strengths of this psychological method of stress management. (5 marks) Identify one definition of abnormality and explain one limitation associated with this definition. (3 marks)

38 THREE POINT RULE Top and bottom your paragraphs. STATE your criticism (What is it?) STATE your criticism (What is it?) SO WHAT? it (e.g. ‘Why is this a good or bad thing?’) EVIDENCE (‘Why is that true in this study?’) EVIDENCE (‘Why is that true in this study?’) One definition of abnormality is deviation from social norms Explain one limitation of this definition. (3 marks)

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40 QT 7 Short essays Outline and evaluate the biological approach to psychopathology. (8 marks) Discuss one or more explanations of independent behaviour, for example, how people resist pressures to conform or obey. (8 marks) Outline and evaluate one research study related to conformity (majority influence). (6 marks) ‘Abnormality can be defined as ‘the failure to function adequately’. Outline and evaluate this definition of abnormality. (6 marks) ‘Abnormality can be defined as ‘the failure to function adequately’. Outline and evaluate this definition of abnormality. (6 marks) Describe and evaluate one or more biological methods of stress management. (10 marks)

41 QT 7 Long essays Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and stress-related illness. (12 marks) ‘There are several methods used to manage the negative effects of stress. These methods can be biological or psychological.’ Discuss two or more methods of stress management. (12 marks) ‘There are several methods used to manage the negative effects of stress. These methods can be biological or psychological.’ Discuss two or more methods of stress management. (12 marks) “Not everyone conforms or obeys authority; some people resist these pressures and remain independent.”” Outline and evaluate research relating to independent behaviour. (12 marks) “Not everyone conforms or obeys authority; some people resist these pressures and remain independent.”” Outline and evaluate research relating to independent behaviour. (12 marks) Discuss the cognitive approach to psychopathology. (12 marks)

42 THE ESSAY QUESTIONS Description (AO1) MarksDetailKnowledge and understanding Selection of appropriate material Presentation of information 6Accurate and reasonably detailed SoundAppropriateClear and coherent 5-4Generally accurate, less detailed RelevantSome evidenceAppropriate 3-2BasicSome relevantLittle evidenceAppropriate 1Very brief/flawed Very littleLargely or wholly inappropriate Grade A 75% = 4 ½ Pass 45%

43 Evaluation (AO2) MarksUse of material Range of issues and/or evidence Expression of ideas, specialist terms, spelling etc 6EffectiveBroad range (5) in reasonable depth or Narrower range (4) in greater depth Clear and good range, few errors 5-4Not always effective Range (4) in limited depth or Narrower range (3) in greater depth Reasonable, some errors 3-2BasicSuperficial consideration of restricted range Lacks clarity, some specialist terms, errors 1RudimentaryJust discerniblePoor, few specialist terms Pass 45% Grade A 75% = 4 ½

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45 Structure Describe and evaluate research on obedience to authority. AO1 Describe a study AO1 Details of the study AO2 Evaluate the study AO2 Elaboration of evaluation AO1 Describe a study AO1 Details of the study AO2 Evaluate the study AO2 Elaboration of evaluation AO1 Describe a study AO1 Details of the study AO2 Evaluate the study AO2 Elaboration of evaluation 12 marks = 12 points (about 300 words) Describe and evaluate the biological approach to psychopathology AO1 One key point AO1 Details AO1 One key point AO1 Details AO1 One key point AO1 Details AO2 Critical point AO2 Elaboration AO2 Critical point AO2 Elaboration AO2 Critical point AO2 Elaboration Depth and breadth

46 Unit 2 Biological Psychology: StressEssays Stress as a bodily response The body’s response to stress, including the pituitary adrenal system and the sympathomedullary pathway in outline. Stress-related illness and the immune system. Stress in everyday life Life changes and daily hassles as sources of stress. Workplace stress including the effects of workload and control. Personality factors, including Type A and Type B behaviour, hardiness. Psychological and biological methods of stress management, including stress inoculation therapy and drug therapy. Stress-related illness and the immune system. Life changes Daily hassles Workplace stress Personality factors (Type A and Type B, Hardiness) Psychological methods of stress management Biological methods of stress management Stress inoculation therapy Drug therapy 1 ½ studies 1 ½ therapies

47 Unit 2 Social Psychology: Social influenceEssays Social influence Conformity (majority influence) and explanations of why people conform, including informational social influence and normative social influence. Types of conformity, including internalisation and compliance. Obedience to authority, including Milgram’s work and explanations of why people obey. Social influence in everyday life Explanations of independent behaviour, including locus of control and how people resist pressures to conform and resist pressures to obey authority. How social influence research helps us understand social change; the role of minority influence in social change. Conformity (majority influence) Obedience to authority Explanations of why people conform Explanations of why people obey Explanations of independent behaviour The role of minority influence in social change 1 ½ studies 3 explanations

48 Unit 2 Individual differences: Psychopathology (abnormality) Essays Defining and explaining psychological abnormality Definitions of abnormality, including deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately and deviation from ideal mental health, and limitations associated with these definitions of psychological abnormality. The biological approach to psychopathology. Psychological approaches to psychopathology including the psychodynamic, behavioural and cognitive approaches. Treating abnormality Biological therapies, including drugs and ECT. Psychological therapies, including psychoanalysis, systematic de-sensitisation and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Definitions of abnormality The biological approach to psychopathology The psychodynamic approach to … The behavioural approach to … The cognitive approach to … Biological therapies Drug therapy ECT Psychological therapies Psychoanalysis Systematic de-sensitisation Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

49 Research into Life changes as a source of stress Holmes and Rahe (1960s) SRRS The key feature of life changes is the psychic cost of change. Individual differences Research is correlational. Rahe et al. (1970) How? Used a version of SRRS with 2600 Navy men. Showed? A small positive correlation between illness and LCUs. Retrospective recall may be unreliable. Daily hassles may be better predictor – one reason may be that people are more likely to seek support for major life events (Flett et al., 1995). 3 rd study? 1 research study Essay plan

50 Not the same as research studies!

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52 TOP TIPS


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