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THE EXAM All questions are compulsory. The answer booklet dictates how much you write. Your answers are clipped when they are marked.

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Presentation on theme: "THE EXAM All questions are compulsory. The answer booklet dictates how much you write. Your answers are clipped when they are marked."— Presentation transcript:

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2 THE EXAM All questions are compulsory. The answer booklet dictates how much you write. Your answers are clipped when they are marked.

3 THE EXAM One extended writing question where QOWC marks are allocated. 72 marks for the whole paper in 90 minutes i.e. about 1 ¼ minutes per mark – 4 mark question = 5 minutes Injunctions … – outline, describe – explain … – discuss or describe + evaluate Can I use bullet points?

4  Questions are set from the specification.  Don’t rely on textbooks.  For each topic be aware of POSSIBLE questions.  Use past papers.  Write your own questions. GETTING INTO THE MIND OF THE PRINCIPAL EXAMINER [RESEARCH INTO] [DESCRIPTION AND EVALUATION] Types of conformity, including internalisation and compliance Obedience, including Milgram’s work The multi-store model, including the concepts of encoding, capacity and duration.

5 QT 1 Simple selection Only 50% of students got this right. If you tick too many your answer is null and void.

6 QT 2 Short description Make sure you write the right amount. (a)What is meant by the term attachment? (2 marks) ………………………………………………………………. Cognitive interviews have been developed to improve witness recall. Identify and explain two techniques used in the cognitive interview. (3 marks + 3 marks) (a)Explain what is meant by internalisation in the context of conformity? (2 marks) ………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………. (b) Explain what is meant by compliance in the context of conformity? (2 marks)

7 Outline the main features of the multi-store model of memory. ………………………………………………………………. QT 3 Longer description What are the implications for social change of research into social influence? ………………………………………………………………. Describe how social influence has contributed to our understanding of social change. ………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 marks Outline one or more ways to improve memory. ………………………………………………………………. 4 marks Describe personality factors that have been shown to influence the way people respond to stress. ………………………………………………………………. 5 marks Some students wrote about WMM??

8 Good AO1 is DETAILED The devil is in the detail ‘Repression is when you don’t remember certain events.’ More detail: ‘Repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’ Even more detail: ‘According to Freud (1918) repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’ ‘Repression is when you don’t remember certain events.’ More detail: ‘Repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’ Even more detail: ‘According to Freud (1918) repression is when you don’t remember traumatic events.’

9 Good AO1 is is just the right length Outline the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) Explain what is meant by informational social influence. (3 marks) Describe how one research study investigated workplace stressors. (4 marks) Outline the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (6 marks) Explain what is meant by informational social influence. (3 marks) Describe how one research study investigated workplace stressors. (4 marks)

10 10 Why it works Produces a précis of text. Gives you the coat pegs. not Ensures you learn just the right amount (not too much or too little). Produces a précis of text. Gives you the coat pegs. not Ensures you learn just the right amount (not too much or too little). A prècis is a summary where one cuts out less important material leaving the key bits. golden nuggets. A prècis is a summary where one cuts out less important material leaving the key bits. golden nuggets.

11 Why it works YOU select your points  Levels of processing theory  E.g. Mandler (1967)  Processing increases recall.  Processing increases understanding.  Cues help recall (cue retrieval theory).  Organises your exam answer.  Revise by rehearsal (MSM) and elaborating the points (leads to enduring memories).

12 Outline one study of the effects of disruption of attachment. Describe what research has shown about he effect of age on witnesses on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Outline how Ainsworth studied types of attachment. Outline how one research study investigated the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (EWT). Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. QT 4 Research studies WHAT HOW SHOW 3 marks 4 marks 12 marks 4 marks Outline what research has shown about the effects of day care on children’s aggressive behaviour. 6 marks

13 QT 5 Applying knowledge During the last few months, Paula has suffered from headaches and colds, and has been having difficulty sleeping. She decided to keep a diary and found that her headaches, colds and sleep problems were associated with experiences such as having too much homework, losing house keys and being stuck in traffic. Use your knowledge of psychology to explain why Paula might be feeling unwell. 3 marks for elaboration (theory and/or studies) 4 marks Two pronged attack: Answer the question Give the psychology Two pronged attack: Answer the question Give the psychology 1 mark for basic statement of relationship between daily hassle and stress.

14 QT 5 Applying knowledge A student teacher finds it very difficult to remember pupils’ names. She decides to look in a psychology book to find some useful strategies for improving her memory. Outline one strategy the student teacher could use, and explain why this might improve her memory for pupils’ names. Candidates often selected a memory technique that was not appropriate for names or not linked to names e.g. method of loci.

15 Mr Harris is about to move his business into a brand new building. He is very keen to create a healthy working environment and reduce workplace stress. In this way he hopes to improve productivity and reduce absenteeism. What advice would you give Mr Harris? Use your knowledge of psychological research in this area. (6 marks) Jan 2010 Exam question for you

16 How does the behaviour of securely attached infants differ from that of insecurely attached infants? (4 marks) ………………………………………………………………… QT 6 Differences Candidates can look at one difference in detail. Or more than one difference more briefly. Candidates can look at one difference in detail. Or more than one difference more briefly. But candidates who only describe insecure or secure attachment get a maximum of 1 mark. A further 1 mark if the comparison is implicit. But candidates who only describe insecure or secure attachment get a maximum of 1 mark. A further 1 mark if the comparison is implicit.

17 differ How does the behaviour of securely attached infants differ from that of insecurely attached infants? (4 marks)

18 QT 7 Criticisms, and strengths and weaknesses The three point rule Outline one limitation of the behavioural approach to psychopathology. (2 marks) Outline one weakness of defining abnormality in terms of mental health. (3 marks) Outline one criticism of investigating cultural variations in attachment using the ‘Strange Situation’.(3 marks).

19 ELABORATING COMMENTARY THREE POINT RULE…. State your criticism (“What is it?”) Evidence (“How do I know that?”) Explain it (e.g. “Why is this a good or bad thing?”) THREE POINT RULE…. State your criticism (“What is it?”) Evidence (“How do I know that?”) Explain it (e.g. “Why is this a good or bad thing?”) Weak AO2 This study can be criticised because it lacks ecological validity. Coherently elaborated AO2 This study can be criticised … …it lacks ecological validity, because …because photographs were used instead of real people. This means that the findings cannot be generalised beyond the particulars of this study. Weak AO2 This study can be criticised because it lacks ecological validity. Coherently elaborated AO2 This study can be criticised … …it lacks ecological validity, because …because photographs were used instead of real people. This means that the findings cannot be generalised beyond the particulars of this study.

20 Extended writing questions

21 QT 8 Short essays Discuss the emotion-focused approach to coping with stress. (8 marks) Discuss one or more physiological methods of stress management. (10 marks) Why did many candidates wrote about psychological methods …? Were they stressed? Why did many candidates wrote about psychological methods …? Were they stressed?

22 QT 9 Long essays Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. (12 marks) Psychologists have put forward different explanations of attachment, such as learning theory and Bowlby’s theory. Discuss one or more explanations of attachment. (12 marks) Outline and evaluate Discuss Quotations Outline and evaluate Discuss Quotations

23 THE ESSAY QUESTIONS Description (AO1) MarksDetailKnowledge and understanding Selection of appropriate material Presentation of information 6Accurate and reasonably detailed SoundAppropriateClear and coherent 5-4Generally accurate, less detailed RelevantSome evidenceAppropriate 3-2BasicSome relevantLittle evidenceAppropriate 1Very brief/flawed Very littleLargely or wholly inappropriate

24 THE ESSAY QUESTIONS Evaluation (AO2) MarksUse of material Range of issues and/or evidence Expression of ideas, specialist terms, spelling etc 6EffectiveBroad range in reasonable depth or narrower range in greater depth Clear and good range, few errors 5-4Not always effective range in limited depth or narrower range in greater depth Reasonable, some errors 3-2BasicSuperficial consideration of restricted range Lacks clarity, some specialist terms, errors 1RudimentaryJust discerniblePoor, few specialist terms

25 Effective AO2 SHOCK HORROR! There is no such thing as AO2, only material that is used as AO2.

26 Consider ALL AO1 Bandura suggested that people learning through observation and vicarious reinforcement. He conducted a study with the Bobo doll where children observed a model and then were tested to see if they imitated the model. ALL AO1 Bandura suggested that people learning through observation and vicarious reinforcement. He conducted a study with the Bobo doll where children observed a model and then were tested to see if they imitated the model. AO1 and AO2 Bandura suggested that people learning through observation and vicarious reinforcement. This was supported by a study he conducted with the Bobo doll where children observed a model and then were tested to see if they imitated the model. AO1 and AO2 Bandura suggested that people learning through observation and vicarious reinforcement. This was supported by a study he conducted with the Bobo doll where children observed a model and then were tested to see if they imitated the model.

27 To make AO2 effective use THE AO2 ‘VOCABULARY’ However … On the other hand … This suggests that… So we can see that… This would imply… A consequence would be… An advantage of this is… However … On the other hand … This suggests that… So we can see that… This would imply… A consequence would be… An advantage of this is… An alternative explanation could be… This is supported by… This is challenged by… Not everyone reacts the same way, for example… There may be cultural variations… This has been applied to… An alternative explanation could be… This is supported by… This is challenged by… Not everyone reacts the same way, for example… There may be cultural variations… This has been applied to…

28 There is substantial research evidence to support the claim that violence is a reaction to the deprivation imposed by institutions such as prisons. For example, McCorkle et al. (1995) found that overcrowding in prisons significantly increased peer violence. This knowledge has been applied in the treatment of violent offenders in UK prisons (Wilson, 2005). Wilson lowered overcrowding and other environmental ‘pollutants’ (noise and heat) associated with prison deprivation, achieving a significant decrease in violence. However,, research in this area has not produced reliable results, with other studies in prisons (e.g. Nijman, 1997) failing to decrease violence levels with lower levels of overcrowding. This suggests that deprivation alone cannot fully account for institutional aggression in prison populations.

29 If you leave it out, it’s not AO2 This was a laboratory study using a doll as the target of aggression. This study may not tell us much about real life aggression because it was conducted in a laboratory using a doll as the target of aggression. People in collectivist cultures are more helpful than those in individualist cultures. There are important cultural variations, people in collectivist cultures are more helpful than those in individualist cultures. This suggests that altruism is not innate. Statement Effective criticism

30 And don’t forget … elaborated, SEXy AO2

31 QT 10 Research methods Not the same as research studies!

32 QT 10 Research methods What conclusions about the effectiveness of different therapies can you draw from the bar chart? (4 marks)

33 Every mark counts

34 THIN K ON YOU R FEE T


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