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Edexcel GCSE Religious Studies

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1 Edexcel GCSE Religious Studies
Unit 8.2 Religion, Environment and Medical Issues

2 Key Words Global Warming: The increase the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. Natural Resources: Naturally occurring materials which can be utilised by humans. Creation: The act of creating the universe, or the universe which has been created. Environment: The surroundings on which plants and animals live and on which they depend to continue living. Stewardship: Looking after something on behalf of another so that it can be passed back or on to the next generation of stewards. Conservation: Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment. Artificial Insemination: Injecting semen into the uterus (womb) by artificial methods. Embryo: A fertilised egg in the first eight weeks after conception. Infertility: Not being able to have children. In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF): The method of fertilising an egg in a test tube. Surrogacy: An arrangement where a woman bears a child for another woman. Organ Donation: Giving organs to be used in transplant surgery.

3 Global Warming Twenty of last thirty years have been recorded as the warmest years since records began. And it looks like the Earth is continuing to get warmer. The expected average temperature rise of just 20c by 2050 will lead to an increased rainfall of around 20% in Britain. In addition to this, sea levels will rise due to the polar ice caps melting. This could lead to coastal regions being lost, whilst Mediterranean countries such as Spain could become deserts.

4 Possible Causes of Global Warming
1. The Greenhouse Effect The burning of fossil fuels (gas, coal and oil) produces carbon dioxide. This produces a barrier in the atmosphere rather like the glass in a greenhouse so that the heat from the sun can get through, but cannot get back out again. Many scientists believe that this is causing the Earth to warm up. This is often called ‘global warming’.

5 Possible Causes of Global Warming
2. Natural Climate Change 3. Solar Activity Some scientists say the climate change is simply part of the natural cycle of the planet. They say the hottest periods over the past 10,000 years were before humans started producing carbon emissions. They say if global warming was due to human activity the troposphere (the Earth’s atmosphere 10-15km up) would be warming quicker than ground level, and its not. They also state that nature naturally produces more C02 emissions than humans ever will. Some scientists claim that natural radiation from the sun is the cause. They say solar flares cause there to be less clouds and so more of the sun’s heat warms the Earth. They also doubt humans are the cause as temperatures dropped after WWII whilst carbon dioxide levels rose rapidly.

6 The Threat of Pollution
1. Acid Rain The burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases sulphuric and nitric acid. These pollutants go into the atmosphere and change the rain water in clouds making it so acidic that it can burn things when it comes to Earth. Buildings and forests are being destroyed by acid rain produced by the UK burning fossil fuels.

7 The Threat of Pollution
2. Radioactive Pollution Nuclear power stations do not produce carbon dioxide, but do produce nuclear waste which takes thousands of years to be safe. Waste is buried without knowing if the storage boxes will be able to contain it safely for this length of time. When living things come into contact with excess radiation, they can be killed, get cancer or have seriously ill offspring.

8 The Threat of Pollution
3. Eutrophication An excess of nitrates, nitrites and phosphates in rivers is leading to a lack of oxygen and an increase in aquatic plants, which is causing fish to die and poisons to enter water supplies. This is caused by fertilisers being washed into streams, sewage pollution, and the lack of trees to soak up the nitrogen. This could lead to major health problems for humans such as septicaemia.

9 The Threat of Pollution
4. Human Waste Human causes of pollution include things such as sewage, rubbish and litter. Sewage needs to be treated before it is safe to enter the water system again it carries hundreds of diseases and can cause eutrophication. Billions of tons of rubbish is dumped every day to rot in the ground giving off toxic gases, and litter has been identified as the main cause of the increase in the UK rat population to around 70 million.

10 The Environment: Secular Analysis
There are many conflicting arguments about how to deal with environmental problems, even amongst scientists. 1. Government Action: Set carbon emission limits on cars, heavier tax for those who use the roads more and unnecessarily. Signing up to the Kyoto Protocol to cut greenhouse gas emissions un- like the USA who refused to as it would affect the American way of life and China and India who refused as it would stand in the way of their own industrial progress. 2. Alternative Lifestyles: Some people only use natural products such as cotton or wool, eat organic food, and ride bikes instead of driving cars. If we all lived this way there would be no environmental problems.

11 3. Science and Technology
There are now several alternative ways of making electricity which do not produce carbon dioxide or nuclear waste. Car manufacturers are looking at water, sugar cane and electric batteries as alternatives forms of power. Most cars are now made of up to 75% recycled material. Better efficiency means it would take 50 small cars built in 2007 to produce the same pollution as 1 small car in Although the number of cars will be higher pollutants emitted from cars will have reduced by 75% by 2010 from 1992. Scientists are using chemicals from plants rather than oil to produce things such as plastics.

12 Natural Resources Natural resources can be divided into two main types: Renewable Resources: Resources that can be used over and over again because they renew themselves naturally. Renewable resources usually produce little or no pollution. Non-Renewable Resources: Resources that can only be used once. Non-Renewable resources disappear once they are used and often cause pollution in their use. Wind Water/Wave Oil Natural Gas Solar Fertile Land Iron Coal Oil Seed Rape/Sugar Cane Tin Copper Soft Woods Uranium Hard Wood These cause no problems to the environment but are expensive to produce. Use of these creates problems as they become more scarce and produce pollution

13 Creation and the Environment
the Earth belongs to God. And God said, ‘Let there be...’ ...and there was and God saw that it was good there was evening, there was morning, the th day. (Genesis 1:1-31) Because God made the Earth, Christianity teaches that God created the universe in such a way that it has produced an environment perfectly suited for human life. Genesis 1 & 2 state that God appointed humanity as stewards of His creation. As a result, most Xians feel they have a responsibility to look after the environment on behalf of God.

14 Stewardship of the Environment
This factory refines coal from its mountain top open cast mine. Q. Should a Christian fight for the closure of this factory? Stewardship includes a responsibility for humans too. Shutting down this factory could put thousands of people out of work, affecting the lifestyle of whole communities. This would not be a Christian solution. So what would?

15 Stewardship of the Environment
God said ‘let us make man in our own image to have dominion over all living things … and God told man to rule over all the earth. (Genesis 1:26-30) Stewardship: ‘Looking after something so that it can be passed on to the next generation.’ Stewardship: ‘Looking after something so that it can be passed on to the next generation.’ Christians believe that with authority comes responsibility for God’s creation As stewards many Christians today feel… They should leave the Earth in a better state than they received it by reducing pollution and preserving resources. They should share the Earth’s resources helping LEDCs (less economically developed countries) without causing more pollution. God will judge them not only on their faith but how they lived. Is their lifestyle environmentally aware? Do they actively support environmental and humanitarian causes.

16 Islam and the Created Environment
Islam teaches that the universe and everything in it was created by God as a place perfectly suited to human life. The Qur’an states: ‘The sun and moon follow courses exactly computed; And the herbs and the trees – both alike bow in adoration… He has set up the balance in order that you may not break the balance.’ Surah 55:5-8 The universe was created by one God and as such the whole of creation has a unity, a common bond, within it. Everything is created by God so humans must respect God’s creation and treat it with care. There is a balance in creation so humans must work to maintain the ecological stability put in place by God since the creation.

17 Islam and the Created Environment
The Qur’an states: ‘Behold thy Lord said to the angels, ‘I will create a vice-gerent on earth.’ And he taught Adam the nature of all things.’’ Surah 2:30 Islam teaches that God created Adam as his ‘Khalifah‘ (vice-gerent; someone who looks after things on your behalf) or steward of creation. Islam teaches that God created humans as his stewards (Khalifahs) of the Earth. He showed people how to look after the Earth in the Qur’an. The Shari’ah (Muslim Law) and Ummah (Muslim Community) teaches a respect for all of God’s creation Life is a test and God will judge Muslims on their faith and actions, including how well they looked after the world.

18 Medical Treatment for Infertility
Importance of Infertility Treatment Infertility is an increasing issue in the UK with around 12-14% of couples unable to conceive. Male infertility is a particular problem with around 1.5m men in the UK experiencing fertility problems. in 2007, 12% of all births in the UK were as a result of fertility treatment - this shows how important it is to many thousands of couples. It is part of human nature to want to have a child, it is how humanity continues. Many people suffer from depression and other mental health issues due to infertility. Any child born using DI (donor insemination) since 1st April 2005, now has the legal right, once 18, to discover who their genetic parents are.

19 Methods of Infertility Treatment
IVF (In-vitro fertilisation): when the egg from the woman is fertilised outside the womb using either the husband’s or a donor’s sperm and then replaced in the womb AIH (Artificial Insemination by Husband): When sperm from the husband is inserted into his wife by mechanically means. AID (Artificial Insemination by Donor): When sperm from a donor, other than the husband, is inserted into the woman by mechanically means. H F E A All treatment and cases of experimentation in the UK are monitored l methods of fertility by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Egg Donation: When an egg is donated by another woman, fertilised using IVF by the husband’s sperm and then placed in the wife’s womb. Embryo Donation: When both egg and sperm from donors are fertilised using IVF and the inserted into the woman’s womb. Surrogacy: When the egg and sperm of a couple are fertilised by IVF then placed in another woman’s womb. Or, the sperm of a husband is artificially inseminated into another woman to have the baby for them. The baby is handed over at birth.

20 Christianity and Infertility Treatment
“And God blessed them saying to the man and the woman; ‘be fruitful and increase in number.’” Genesis 1:28 Catholics bans all fertility treatment involving medical technology. God has given a natural way for a husband and wife to conceive and it is for God alone to decide if a couple should have a child or not. IVF involves fertilising several eggs, some of which are destroyed or used for experimentation, this is like abortion. God intended procreation through intercourse, fertility treatment bypasses this. It also involves masturbation which is classed as a sin in Catholicism Anything that disassociates the husband and wife in creating a child, or introduces another person into the process, is ‘gravely immoral’. Most Other Christian Churches allow IVF & AIH. God has given humanity the technology to provide infertile married couples with a child and create a family. This is one of the purposes of marriage. The egg and sperm are both from the husband and wife so the baby will be the biological child of the parents. The concept of Double Effect allows for some embryos (up to 14 days old) to be destroyed if the motive is to bring new life from embryos. Although other methods are not banned, they could lead to identity issues in the child or legal issues for parents which do not help family life. All Christians would encourage childless couples to adopt.

21 Islam and Infertility Treatment
Most Muslims will accept IVF & AIH for couples having fertility problems. IVF & AIH is simply seen as the use of medical technology to bring about family life which is encouraged in Islamic life. All other forms of embryo technology are banned: These methods deny the child’s right to know its natural parents. This is essential within Islamic religion and culture. Any form of egg or sperm donation is regarded as adultery, a grievous sin within Islam. Egg and sperm donation is also seen as being like adoption - which would not be appropriate in this circumstance. The discarded embryos are not yet foetuses and their destruction can be justified because it is not taking life and the intention is to give childless couples children The egg and sperm are both from the husband and wife so the baby will be the biological child of the parents. Adoption has specific rules including: the child retains its biological parent’s name, full adoption is banned and adopted children are not considered ‘muhrim’.

22 Transplant Surgery Transplant surgery is using healthy organs from a donor to replace a dying or defective organ in a patient with the result of extending their life and/or adding to their quality of life. There are two main types of organ donation: Deceased Donors: This is where people who have died have either previously given permission for their organs to be used, or, relatives of the deceased person give their permission. Living Donors: this is where living people donate parts of their body they can live without such as bone marrow and a single kidney. In 2007, 7234 people were on the waiting list for vital organ donations. However, in 2006 only 3000 transplants took place. In a survey, 90% of the public were in favour of transplant surgery yet less than 50% have registered. One third of families refuse to give permission for organs of deceased relatives to be used, even though the person has already signed the organ donation register. Transplant surgery is proven method of both saving lives (heart and liver) and improving lives (cornea and kidney). Transplant surgery can bring life out of death and joy out of sorrow, rather than being buried or burnt. ULTRA (Unrelated Live Transplant Regulatory Authority) is a government organisation set up to monitor live transplants and preventing the selling of organs. Q. Do you think a people should be able to sell their organs?

23 Christianity & Transplant Surgery
Most Christians are supportive of transplant surgery. Christians who believe in the immortality of the soul believe the body is not needed after death and so organs can be used to help the living. Christians who believe in the resurrection of the body believe they will have a transformed body not subject to physical needs. Jesus’ teaching of ‘Love your neighbour as yourself’ and the Golden Rule are both in keeping with the ideals of transplant surgery However, they would be against selling organs as this can lead to the exploitation of the poor (e.g. A father selling a kidney to feed his family). However, some Christians accept live transplants but not those from deceased donors. They would see the vital organs, particularly the heart, as part of God’s creation of the individual person and so should not be used. Humans do not have the right to act like God and using the organs of a dead person to give life to another is usurping the role of God for yourself. Using organs from living people does not affect the belief in the sanctity of life and so can be used to fulfil the teachings of Jesus in the Bible. However, they would be against selling organs as this can lead to medical assistance only available for the rich and not for the poor.

24 Christianity & Transplant Surgery
Some Christians are against transplant surgery It raises a problem about when organs should be harvested (taken) e.g. A heart needs to be still beating when removed. On August 8th 2000 two girls named Jodie and Mary were born in London to a Maltese couple. They were conjoined (Siamese) twins. As the girls were sharing vital organs they could not survive if they remained in this state. Therefore, the doctor’s at the hospital wanted to separate the twins. The Roman Catholic Church attempted to gain a High Court ruling to block the separation seeing it as killing one child so their organs could be used by the other, this would be considered an evil act. The family, who were also Catholic, did not want the separation to take place either. The Catholic Church offered to look after the girls and their family in a hospice in Rome until the girls died, which was expected to be around six months later. The High Court agreed with the doctors and the separation took place on 7th November During the operation Mary died, Jodie lived and is expected to lead a full and normal life. Using organs of one person to keep another alive could be going against the will of God. God may see that person’s time as being up. In Leviticus (17:11) is says ‘the life of a being is in the blood’. Some groups, such as Jehovah’s Witnesses, will not accept blood or organ transplants as it is seen as passing or mixing ‘life’ from one body to another.

25 Islam & Transplant Surgery
Most Muslims are against transplant surgery Shari’ah Law teaches that nothing should be removed from the body after death (even for a post-mortem) as Muslims believe they will need all their bodily organs if they are to be resurrected to face Allah on the last day. The Qur’an states that god has created the body of a person so to take parts from one body and put them in another is to take on the role of God (shirk). This is considered as the greatest sin in Islam. Like Christians and Jews, Muslims believe in the Sanctity of Life, meaning, only God has the right to decide how and when a person should live or die. However, Some Muslims will allow transplant using organs from a living donor. In 1995 the Muslim Law Council of the United Kingdom, issued a fatwa (a legal ruling based on Islamic law made by senior Islamic figures). This stated that it was acceptable for living donations to be made and received in keeping with Islamic law. Islamic religious lawyers agree that Islam aims to do good and not cause a burden. Therefore, if a close relative was dying and a transplant would save them, then it should be done, just as pork may be eaten if a Muslim would otherwise starve to death.

26 Revision Checklist Key Words and meanings. What is global warming?
Three possible causes of global warming. Four forms of pollution. Possible solutions to pollutions. Natural resources. Christianity and stewardship of creation. Islam and stewardship of creation. Infertility treatment. Christian view on infertility treatment. Islamic view on infertility treatment. Transplant surgery. Christian view on transplant surgery. Islamic view on transplant surgery.

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