2Homework 1 Key Term Definition Bible the holy book of Christians Churchthe community of Christians (with a small c it means a Christian place of worship)consciencean inner feeling of the rightness or wrongness of an actionthe Decaloguethe Ten Commandmentsdemocratic processesthe ways in which all citizens can take part in government (usually through elections)electoral processesthe ways in which voting is organisedthe Golden Rulethe teaching of Jesus that you should treat others as you would like them to treat youhuman rightsthe rights and freedoms to which everyone is entitledpolitical partya group which tries to be elected into power on the basis of its policies (eg Labour, Conservative)pressure groupa group formed to influence government policy on a particular issueSituation Ethicsthe idea that Christians should base moral decisions on what is the most loving thing to dosocial changethe way in which society has changed and is changing (and also the possibilities for future change)
3What are human rights? (2 marks) Human Rights in the UKYour human rights are:The right to life – the law must protect you from being killed. This is used by asylum seekers who fear being killed in their native country.Freedom from torture and degrading treatment – no-one can be tortured in the UK OR by anyone acting on its behalf e.g. British soldiersFreedom from slavery and forced labour – no UK citizen can be involved in either of these.The right to liberty – people are free to do what they want within the law and can only be detained according to the law.The right to a fair trialFreedom of thought, conscience and religion – you cannot be persecuted for what you believe in.The right to an educationThe right to take part in elections – vote, stand as a candidate and have a secret vote.Exam QuestionsWhat are human rights? (2 marks)b) Do you think human rights need more protection in the United Kingdom? Give 2 reasons for your point of view. (4 marks)
4Why Human Rights Are Important To Christians The right to life is a basic Christian belief because of the sanctity of life.Christians believe everyone is made in the image of God, so people are all family. This is shown in the teachings of Jesus and the Church, e.g. The Parable of the Sheep and The Goats tells Christians to treat everyone as though they were Jesus. Thus, Christians believe everyone should be treated fairly and equally.Freedom of conscience, religion, thought, association, expression etc are a vital part of being a Christian, as they must have the right to believe in Christianity and gather together for worship and have processions to celebrate festivals.If Christians have the right not to be discriminated against, it means that employers can’t refuse to employ them because they don’t want to employ religious people.Christians believe in a just and fair society and human rights are a necessary part of this.Why some human rights can cause problems for ChristiansMany are against the right to form civil partnerships because they believe that homosexuality is against the will of God and that they have the right to discriminate against homosexuals by not allowing them the same kind of Church blessing given to divorced couples who have had a civil ceremony.Some are against the right to marry someone from another faith because they want children to grow up in Christianity and would discriminate against inter-faith couples by refusing to allow them to marry in Church.Some are against the rights of homosexuals to have children because they believe this should be a mother and a father, so some Churches have opposed adoption laws which make it illegal for them to refuse to approve homosexual couples for adoption.Might also be problems if a Catholic woman decided to use anti-discrimination laws against the Church in order to become a priest, or if a priest did the same to demand the right to be allowed to get married.
5The nature of genetic engineering, including cloning Exam QuestionWhat are human rights? (2 marks)Do you think human rights need more protection in the UK? Give 2 reasons for your point of view (4 marks)c) Explain why human rights laws are important to Christians (8 marks)Homework 2The nature of genetic engineering, including cloningGenetic diseases affect many people. Defective inherited genes can cause mental retardation, physical deformity and early death and scientists are currently looking for cures for many illnesses such as Huntington’s chorea and cystic fibrosis.Stem Cell ResearchCloning processes have been used to grow healthy cells to replace ones that don’t work properly and so cure disease. This involves creating stem cells either from embryos produced for IVF, but not used, or from adult bone marrow or blood. These are then cultivated so they can multiply and be transplanted into diseased cells. Legislation to allow this was only passed in In 2008 a law was passed to allow human-animal embryos for medical research . Most of these are likely to be a human nucleus in an empty animal egg, making the embryo 99.9% human.
6Non-religious arguments in favour of genetic engineering Offers the prospect of cures for currently incurable diseasesBeing done in other countries so available to those rich enough to travel and pay for treatmentsCloning processes can cure diseaseCloning using animal eggs does not involve loss of human lifeGenetic research is integral to medical research and necessarily involves some genetic engineeringGenetic research is closely monitored by the law but has vast potential benefitsNon-religious arguments against genetic engineeringToo little information about long term consequencesHas effects which would be irreversible so if anything went wrong it would be permanentPlaces too much power in the hands of scientists who could use it to produce scientifically created humansOffers the possibility of people having to be genetically screened before getting life insurance, senior jobs etc with anyone likely to be ill or die young losing outSome Christians are against genetic research because:God created the genetic make-up of each human being at the moment of conception and people should not interfereGenetic engineering is playing God, which is a sinIt is wrong to try to make earth perfect, only heaven is thatAccept non-religious arguments against it
7Accept most non-religious arguments in favour of genetic engineering Some Christians believe it is a good thing as long as it is used to cure disease not to create the perfect human because:Jesus was a healer who told Christians to do what they can to cure diseaseUsing these discoveries to improve human life is what God wants humans to do as stewards of his creationDifference between creating cells and creating humans, as creating cells is working with GodEmbryos cannot be regarded as potential human life until they get to 14 days oldAccept most non-religious arguments in favour of genetic engineeringSome Christians believe it is a good thing as long as it is used to cure disease and does not use human embryos:Life begins at the moment of conception whether in a womb or a glass dishKilling an embryo is killing human life, banned by Bible and ChurchEmbryos for research have been produced by methods the Catholic Church disagrees withExam Questionb) Do you think cloning should be allowed for medical research? Give 2 reasons for your point of view (4 marks)d) “Christians should agree with cloning.”Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion (3 marks)Give reasons why some people may disagree with you (3 marks)At least one of the points of view should be Christian with reasons from that religion
8End of Unit Test Pg 1 a) What is conscience? (2 marks) ______________________________________b) Do you think it is important to take part in democratic processes? Give 2 reasons for your point of view (4 marks)_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________c) Explain how Christians make moral decisions (8 marks)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9End of Unit Test Pg 2d) “You should always treat other people the same way you want them to treat you.” In your answer you should refer to ChristianityDo you agree? (3 marks) ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________(ii) Give reasons why people may disagree with you (3 marks)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Peer AssessmentTotal out of 20: ______/20Target: ________________________________________________________________________________________________