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The Environment and Medical Issues revision

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1 The Environment and Medical Issues revision

2 Key words: write out the answers then click to check them
Pollution The contamination of the natural environment Global warming Increase CO2 in the atmosphere raises the temperature of the earth, with potentially devastating effects on the environment Conservation Preserving and protecting the environment and its natural resources Stewardship Taking care of the environment on behalf of God and for the benefit of future generations Creation The act of creating the universe

3 Environment The surroundings in which plants and animals live and on which they depend to live Natural resources Naturally occurring materials, such as oil and fertile land, which can be used by humans Artificial insemination Injecting semen into the uterus by artificial means Embryo A fertilised egg in the first 8 weeks after conception Infertility Not being able to have children

4 In-vitro fertilisation
The method of fertilising a human egg in a test tube Organ donation Giving organs to be used in transplant surgery Surrogacy An arrangement whereby a woman bears a child on behalf of another woman

5 Air pollution Water pollution Types of pollution Noise pollution Land pollution

6 Effects of pollution Most scientists say that pollution has caused the greenhouse effect which is heating up the earth because gases are trapped in the atmosphere This in turn has caused the polar ice caps to melt It has also meant that we experience more freak weather conditions However, not all scientists agree! Some believe that this is a natural worldly cycle that happens every so many thousands of years Also, not all pollution is damaging e.g. noise pollution only effects people, not the environment

7 The effects of global warming – the increase in the Earth’s temperature (thought to be caused by the greenhouse effect) The earth’s temperature rises Polar ice caps melt Sea levels rise, meaning that low lands could disappear e.g the Maldives Weather becomes hotter in places Leads to drought in some areas and so crops fails People starve and some lands can’t be populated

8 Non-religious attitudes to the environment
Many non-religious people are concerned about the environment. Governments have pressured large companies such as McDonalds and B&Q in to making sure that they recycle waste and that they ethically source good. Governments have also set targets to reduce CO2 and to recycle more, hence many houses now have recycle bins and tips are more accessible. It is understood that the effects of global warming are felt everywhere but especially by LEDCs who experience more drought and so have food shortages. It is estimated that over the next few hundred years much of low land in countries will be under water due to the melting of the ice caps e.g much of Holland On the other hand some people still don’t care what the damage is and refuse to do their part. If governments really wanted change then more could be done to make people have environmentally friendly cars and use solar panels on their houses to get electricity

9 Greenpeace This is a non-religious group who:
Work for sustainable development Campaign against climate change Try to protect the rain forests from being destroyed Stand up for animal rights e.g. they try to stop whaling They do this because they believe that the planet belongs to everyone and so no one should destroy it.

10 Ways people try to reduce pollution
Recycle clothes, plastics, paper etc Use public transport or walk rather than use a car Use energy efficient products e.g. light bulbs, washing machines Carry re-useable bags to cut down on plastic bags Buy local produce to reduce transports carbon foot print

11 The Christian attitude to the environment
All Christians believe that they have a duty to protect and care for the environment and should not pollute it

12 Reasons for this attitude:
The Bible says that people were created by God to be stewards – to take care of it on God’s behalf and for the benefit of future generations God made the world and so it is not ours to ruin The Parable of the Talents Jesus taught people that God expects them to look after the world and leave it in a better condition than they found it in. If Christians look after the world then they will be rewarded by God in heaven. Pollution is NOT looking after the planet. It is selfish and does not look after the world as God intended.

13 Muslim attitudes to the environment
All Muslims believe that they have a duty to protect and care for the environment and should not pollute it

14 Notice that these are similar ideas to Christians!
This is because: Islam teaches that Muslims have been given a responsibility to rule over the earth and the resources by Allah. God made the world perfect and so it should be respected. Tawhid is the idea that God made everything to fit with everything else – the world is in unity. Allah made Adam his first khalifah (steward) - someone who rules for him and looks after the world. Humans will be judged by Allah on Judgement Day on how well they have they looked after the world.

15 A Rocha This is a Christian group who work for conservation.
They do this because they believe that humans are stewards of the earth, and should look after it for God They believe in the parable of the talents which says that those who leave the earth in a better state than they found it will go to heaven They campaign against climate change and put pressure on the international community to reduce CO2 They believe that we all have a responsibility to recycle and to save the rainforests which are the lungs of the earth The reasons why they work for conservation are the same reasons why Christians believe that they should care for the planet.

16 A Roche – a Christian group working for conservation
What they do: A Rocha runs projects in a number of countries (e.g. UK, France, Canada, Lebanon, Portugal among others). The projects focus on education, science, conservation or research. Projects Here are two examples of A Rocha projects: 1. Living Waterways project in the UK The Living Waterways project is based in west London. The aim of the project was to “open up the wonders of God’s creation to people who have little chance to enjoy the beauty at first hand.” Working with the local council the other community groups A Rocha has helped to turn 90 acres of wasteland into the Minet Country Park. The park has recreation space and nature conservation areas. Instead of burnt-out cars and dumped waste the land now has nature trails, green open space and a children’s playground. 2. Les Tourades study centre in France The A Rocha study centre in France focuses on three main areas: Welcoming visitors and encouraging discussions of environmental issues. Conducting scientific research on local flora, fauna and ecosystems. Managing and protecting vulnerable or threatened sites.

17 Test yourself Name the 4 types of pollution
Which do not physically damage the environment? Name 3 ways people try to reduce pollution What is the Muslim and Christian attitude towards the environment? Give 4 reasons a Christian has this view Give 4 reasons a Muslim has this view

18 Religion and Medical Issues

19 Types of infertility treatments
Artificial insemination - Injecting semen into the uterus by artificial means IVF - The method of fertilising a human egg in a test tube This can use the husband and wife’s DNA, or can use donated egg, sperm or embryo AIH – by husband AID – by donor Types of infertility treatments Surrogacy - An arrangement whereby a woman bears a child on behalf of another woman Fertility drugs Drugs used to make a woman produce eggs. Conception then happens naturally

20 Christian attitudes to fertility treatments
All Christians think that having a family is important, but disagree with some of the technology available. You need to learn what the main opinions are towards the treatments, and why

21 Opinion 1: Some Christians are against the use of embryo technology (IVF) and anything which involves a donor (surrogacy, AID) This is because: God intended a child to be conceived by a married couple. This means that donors are not allowed, or is anything which doesn’t allow natural conception (IVF). The egg and sperm must meet by themselves. The use of donors can be seen as being like adultery and the 10 Commandments say “Do not commit adultery” Statements have been issued by Roman Catholics saying that it is wrong. They said that the use of donors was “mechanical adultery”. When embryos are created using IVF, ones not used may be disposed of. Roman Catholics believe that life begins at conception and so this is classed as murder and the 10 Commandments say “Do not kill”. The use of donors may cause problems for the family in the future if the child wants to find their biological parent. Family is really important to Christians and banning donors prevents this problem.

22 Opinion 2 : Some Christians allow treatments to be used
This is because: God gave doctors the knowledge to develop the treatments, which he wouldn’t have if he didn’t want them to be used The Bible contains stories of God bringing happiness to infertile women by allowing them to have a child. Using technology today is a great act of kindness It follows Jesus’ teaching of ‘love thy neighbour’

23 Opinion 3: Some Christians do not want any treatments to be used
This is because: They think that God is omnipotent and so has decided that someone is infertile. It would be a sin to go against God’s wishes. This is backed up with evidence from the Bible “Hannah had no children because the Lord kept her from doing so.”

24 Opinion 4: All Christians ban the use of surrogates
This is because Of the problems it may cause families over issues of identity Also, even though sex doesn’t take place between the father and the surrogate, it could be classed as adultery and the 10 Commandments say “do not commit adultery”

25 Muslim attitudes towards infertility treatments
Like Christians Muslims also believe that married couples should be able to have children, but not at any moral cost. Just because the technology exists, it doesn’t mean it SHOULD be used. There are 2 main opinions: Some Muslims believe that if a couple can not have children then that is Allah’s wish and so should not be changed. Reason: This is because God is all powerful and has a plan for everyone. It would be a SIN to go against this plan.

26 Other Muslims do allow treatments to be used, BUT ONLY IF THE HUSBAND AND WIFE’S DNA is used.
This is because: Fertility is seen by many as just another illness, and in the Qur’an Muslims are encouraged to help the sick The child of a donor will not know their lineage which is important. This means that surrogacy and adoption are not allowed (but Muslims should care for orphans – just not change their family name). Muslims are taught that a woman is not a mother unless she has carried the baby herself. The use of donors is the same as adultery which is a sin IVF is allowed, even though some embryos may be disposed of. This is because Allah doesn’t breath the soul in to the embryo before 120 days and so it is not classed as a living thing until this point.

27 Now test yourself List 4 types of fertility treatments
Why do some Christians not like the use of embryo technology (IVF)? Why do Muslims only allow the DNA from the parents to be used in fertility treatments? Give 2 reasons why some Muslims allow fertility treatments to be used Why may some Christians and Muslims be totally against the use of fertility treatments? Give 2 reasons why some Christians allow fertility treatments to be used

28 Transplant surgery There are over 8000 people waiting on the transplant list. Not all of those people will live long enough to receive an organ. In the UK donors can be both dead or alive. If dead the body remains on a life support machine until the doctors are ready. If alive then organs can be given (often to a close relative) but only if there is no risk to the donor’s health.

29 Non-religious arguments for transplant surgery
It saves lives It uses organs from the dead which otherwise would go to waste It is a way for people to do something selfless and show compassion It gives a quality of life back to people whose illness means that they can not do things It can bring comfort to the dead donor’s relatives to know that their relative has helped many others

30 Non-religious arguments against transplant surgery
It costs thousands of pounds but there is no guarantee that it will work Because there are not enough organs, there is a black market which exploits the poor It mutilates the dead which can bring suffering to the relatives of the dead donor

31 Christian views – 3 opinions
However, many other Christians do support transplant surgery. This is because: It follows Jesus’ teachings of ‘love thy neighbour’. Jesus healed people and organ transplants is another form of this Churches have issued statements saying that it is a good thing (modern day heroism) as long as it is done in a morally acceptable way. The Bible teaches the importance of sacrifice and helping others, which organ donation does Some Christians would not support the use of transplant surgery because: God is omniscient. Saving a life goes against God’s plan and so is a sin It goes against the sanctity of life – life is special and holy and belongs to God. Saving a life is playing God which is a sin All Christians are against the black market. This is because it exploits the poor which is forbidden by the Bible

32 Muslim views on transplants
Some Muslims think that transplant surgery is wrong. This is because: The Qur’an teaches that on the Last Day, God will resurrect everyone . This means that Muslims do not allow anything to be removed from the body after death, including organs The belief in the sanctity of life. Muslims should not do anything to harm the body which is God’s creation God is omniscient and has a plan for everyone. Transplant surgery interferes with that. Some Muslims will allow transplant surgery. This is because: Islam teaches that every Muslim should try to end suffering. Transplants can do this In 1995 The Muslim Council of Britain said that Muslims could carry a donor card Muslims must be charitable, and organ donation is an act of charity It can save lives and so is allowed Like Christians, all Muslims are against the black market as it degrades the human body

33 Now test yourself Around how many people are currently waiting on the transplant list? Why many some NON-RELIGIOUS people be against transplant surgery? Give 2 Christian arguments for an against transplant surgery Give 2 Muslim arguments for an against transplant surgery

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