Presentation on theme: " What is a phobia? An exaggerated fear of an object or situation The fear is irrational – the fear of the thing is greater than the risk posed by."— Presentation transcript:
What is a phobia? An exaggerated fear of an object or situation The fear is irrational – the fear of the thing is greater than the risk posed by the thing itself.
Spiders Social Phobia (afraid of being with people) Flying Open spaces Small spaces Heights Being sick/vomiting Cancer Thunderstorms Death and dead things
Does anyone have a phobia? How do you think phobias could be learned? Who did we learn about who was given a phobia? Little Albert
According to behaviourists, phobias are learned, just like any other behaviour Fill in the gaps to show how a phobia could have been conditioned. Chose one of the following: John has a phobia of dogs. This is because he was once attacked by a dog If you have a phobia yourself, explain how a negative experience caused that phobia Make up a phobia, and explain how it came about
Before conditioning UCSUCR (being attacked)(Fear) NSNo Response (dog)
During conditioning UCSNSUCR (being attacked) (dog) (fear and pain) After conditioning CSCR (dog)(fear)
It was first developed by Wolpe (1958) and is used in the treatment of phobias. Phobias come about through classical conditioning, but are maintained through operant conditioning. People avoid what they are afraid of. Less stressful than flooding
AIM: This therapy aims to extinguish an undesirable behaviour fear by replacing it with a more desirable one: relaxation. Link with the assumptions? The beh. approach assumes that all behaviour is learned from the environment. Therefore, we can unlearn conditioned responses by manipulating the environment.
What is reciprocal inhibition? We can not feel fear and relaxation at the same time, as the two emotions are not compatible.
Read the description of the process of SD
In vivo: direct experience In vitro: using visualisation TASK Name some phobias which you would use in vivo and in vitro for.
SD uses CC. Feared stimuli are conditioned through therapy to be associated with relaxation. This will lead to extinction of the fear response SD uses generalisation. It is impossible for the therapist to account for every possible fearful situation. Relaxation learned should be generalisable to other similar stimuli.
In pairs, come up with a hierarchy of fear for any phobia In vivo or in vitro?
What did Capafons et al (1998) find? What did Klein et al (1983) find?
McGrath (1990) found that SD is successful for a wide range of anxiety disorders, with 75% of patients with phobias responding to treatment.
Create a flyer for a clinic which treats phobias with SD. Must contain the following information The aim of the therapy and how it works The process of the therapy An example of the therapy in action Research evidence which supports it’s effectiveness It must be written so that someone with no knowledge of psychology could understand it
FGE7QELQ FGE7QELQ How would you help this woman?