Presentation on theme: "No More Civil Disobedience? New Role Models for Women after the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act, 1919 Julia Neville Heroes and Leaders Workshop March."— Presentation transcript:
No More Civil Disobedience? New Role Models for Women after the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act, 1919 Julia Neville Heroes and Leaders Workshop March 2013 – Exeter University
Where I’m coming from Variations in interwar local government decisions Public policy theory Advocacy Coalition Framework Interest groups Core Beliefs as the basis for decision-making Would ‘heroes’ help?
Advocacy Coalition Framework
Core Beliefs -as characterised in the ACF - Defining Characteristics Scope and Susceptibility to Change Deep Core Beliefs Fundamental normative and ontological axioms Very difficult. Akin to a religious conversion Policy Core Beliefs Policy positions on the basic strategies for achieving core values Difficult, but can occur if experience reveals serious anomalies
Women in 1919 As well as the right to vote (for some) … New opportunities to take on public roles – County Councillors – Members of Parliament – Jurors – Magistrates (JPs) Were the old ‘models’ and ‘heroes’ fit for the new purposes?
The Old Image … - militant suffragettes broke the law and paid the penalty -
The New Image - Lady Astor elected to serve as Member of Parliament -
The Periclean Ideal Every Athenian citizen profoundly believed in and loved his city, and was prepared to work and, if necessary, to die for her. To serve the city was the object of every man, and those who served her best were held in the highest honour, while those who did no public work were regarded with contempt. That was the secret of the greatness of Athens. The contrast with Manchester is depressing … E.W. Simon, A City Council from Within, 1926, pp
Justice, Prejudice and Woman
Heroes of the Suffrage Campaign Pageant of Great Women, 1909 Learned Women & Artists – women are not ‘dumb’ Queens & Saints – women can fulfil ‘stern duty’ e.g. St Hilda, Elizabeth Fry, Queen Philippa, Queen Victoria Heroines & Warriors – women can be faithful and endure suffering for a cause e.g. Boadicea, Joan of Arc, Kate Barlass, Florence Nightingale
Influence of the Great War -Change and Reinforcement- Emulation of male heroism and sacrifice – Edith Cavell The Mother Reinforcement of women’s nursing and medical roles – Rise of Florence Nightingale
Rise and Fall of Women War Heroes Google (British English) Books Ngram
Post War Pageant Detail (1) Honiton Ilkeston Liberty Boadicea Puritan Maid Madam Roland Harriet Beecher Stowe Champions and Friends of Liberty Boadicea Mrs Trueman Huguenot woman Madam Roland Harriet Beecher Stowe Christianity Queen Bertha of Kent Queen Margaret of Scotland Queen Elizabeth of Hungary Susannah Wesley Catherine Booth Mary Slessor of Calabar Women who spread Christianity Bertha Genevieve of Paris Susannah Wesley Catherine Booth Mary Slessor
Post War Pageant Detail (2) Honiton Ilkeston Humanity Queen Philippa of England Alice, Countess of Lisle Grace Darling Sister Dora of Walsall Florence Nightingale Edith Cavell Life Savers Grace Darling Sister Dora of Walsall Florence Nightingale Elizabeth Fry Vision Joan of Arc Elizabeth Barrett Browning Elizabeth Fry Josephine Butler Seers and Visionaries Joan of Arc Elizabeth Barrett Browning Victoria, Queen of England MotherhoodA mother
Post War Pageants – a new roll call Liberty e.g. Manon Roland, Harriet Beecher Stowe Christianity e.g. Susannah Wesley, Mary Slessor Humanity e.g. Sister Dora of Walsall, Edith Cavell Vision e.g. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Josephine Butler Motherhood
[Dis]Agreement on the Pantheon? The ‘Angel in the House’? – division amongst women about their roles Abjuring heroes – don’t look back Anti-heroes and caricatures
Heroes for whom? – in what circumstances? Not often for women active in public life In educational contexts – Exhortations – In the ‘national curriculum’ – By special interest groups e.g. Temperance Movement, Sunday School Influencing the next generation Lady Florence Cecil, 1926
Worth further exploration? Can an understanding of ‘heroes and leaders’ contribute to a better understanding of the core beliefs of interest groups in a public policy system? Can the Advocacy Coalition Framework contribute to the theoretical framework for understanding how role models and exemplars function?