Presentation on theme: ". Here, surely, was a most excellent reason for my failure. ( p.297) "Hush!" he cried. ( p.263) Ah, yes, here it is! ( p. 68) "Oh, you are the young."— Presentation transcript:
. Here, surely, was a most excellent reason for my failure. ( p.297) "Hush!" he cried. ( p.263) Ah, yes, here it is! ( p. 68) "Oh, you are the young person who cannot understand plain English, are you? (p.40)
M ODAL WORDS Express the attitude of the speaker to the reality, possibility or of the action he speech about.
MW a) Words expressing certainly: certainly, surely, assuredly, of course, no doubt, apparently, undoubtedly. e.g. Certainly it was not this which our pioneer had attempted to indicate. (p.195) I have no doubt that you feel the same way yourself (p. 201) The incident made it think, apparently, that the neighborhood was dangerous. (p.242)
b) Words expressing supposition: perhaps, maybe, possibly, probably. e.g. Perhaps I can make something of the fellow. (p.265) That maybe I should have spoken about before this. (p.465) "Do you think, Sir, that you could possibly send me on some mission for the paper? (p.18) In the first place, you are probably aware that two years ago I made a journey to South America. (p.57)
e.g. My feelings for the loathsome profession to which you unhappily belong. (p.131) But, happily, there were limits to the strain which the rope would stand. (p.409) But, fortunately I was rescued from an odious situation. (p.47) c) Words s howing whether the speaker considers the action he speaks about desirable or undesirable: happily- unhappily, luckily- unluckily.
Simple ( and, or,but, till, after, that, so, where, when.) Derivative ( until, unless, etc.) Compound (however, whereas, wherever, etc.) Composite ( as well as, as long as, in case, on the ground that, for the reason that, etc.) e.g. He resumed his unpleasant and stealthy advance, pointing his toes as he walked.(p.45) W hen I needed help so sorely? (p.41) It is all up with the old dear unless some food is got into him. (p.117)
And, not, neither…nor, either..or, etc. e.g. But if it is neither bird nor bat.(p.76) I am not aware that they are dependent upon endorsement either from you or anyone else. (p.34)
while, though, that, than,etc. e.g. That the wing of a bird is really the forearm, while the wing of a bat consists of three elongated fingers. (p.76) It was just after eleven, and the big room was fairly full, though the rush had not yet set in. (p.25)
1 ) c o p u l a t i v e : a n d, n o r, a s w e l l a s, b o t h … a n d, n o t o n l y … b u t ( a l s o ), n e i t h e r … n o r. e. g. S h o w e d t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e w o u l d b e p o p u l a r a s w e l l a s s c i e n t i f i c. ( p. 9 0 ) 2 ) d i s j u n c t i v e : o r, e i t h e r …. o r, o r e l s e, e l s e. e. g. H o w e l s e c o u l d h e c o m e b y h i s b r o k e n b o n e s. ( p )
3) adversative: but, while, whereas. e.g. The slopes of the knoll were bare, but there a few trees on the summit. (p.126) 4) causative-consecutive: so, for. e.g. But whereas the whistle is a clear, mechanical, sharp- edged sound. (p.261)