4What Is Communication? Communication: The transfer and understanding of meaning.Transfer means the message was received in a form that can be interpreted by the receiver.Understanding the message is not the same as the receiver agreeing with the message.Interpersonal Communication:Communication between two or more peopleOrganizational Communication:All the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization
5Four Functions of Communication ControlMotivationEmotional ExpressionInformationFunctions of Communication
6Functions of Communication (cont’d) Emotional Expression:Social interaction in the form of work group communications provides a way for employees to express themselves.Information:Individuals and work groups need information to make decisions or to do their work.
8Interpersonal Communication Message:Source: sender’s intended meaning.Encoding:The message converted to symbolic form.Channel:The medium through which the message travels.Decoding:The receiver’s retranslation of the message.Noise:Disturbances that interfere with communications.
9Distortions in Communications Message Encoding:The effect of the skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the sender on the process of encoding the message.The social-cultural system of the sender.The Message:Symbols used to convey the message’s meaning.The content of the message itself.The choice of message format.Noise interfering with the message.
10Distortions in Communications (cont’d) The Channel:The sender’s choice of the appropriate channel or multiple channels for conveying the messageReceiver:The effect of skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the receiver on the process of decoding the messageThe social-cultural system of the receiverFeedback Loop:Communication channel distortions affecting the return message from receiver to sender
11Interpersonal Communication Methods Face-to-face.Telephone.Group meetings.Formal presentations.Memos.Traditional Mail.Fax machines.Employee publications.Bulletin boards.Audio- and videotapes.Hotlines..Computer conferencing.Voice mail.Teleconferences.Videoconferences.
13Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) Nonverbal Communication:Communication that is transmitted without words.Sounds with specific meanings or warningsImages that control or encourage behaviorsSituational behaviors that convey meaningsClothing and physical surroundings that imply statusBody language: gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning.Verbal intonation: emphasis that a speaker gives to certain words or phrases that conveys meaning.
14Interpersonal Communication Barriers FilteringNational CultureEmotionsLanguageInterpersonal CommunicationInformation OverloadDefensiveness
15Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Filtering:The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver.Emotions:Disregarding rational and objective thinking processes and substituting emotional judgments when interpreting messages.Information Overload:Being confronted with a quantity of information that exceeds an individual’s capacity to process it.
16Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) Defensiveness:When threatened, reacting in a way that reduces the ability to achieve mutual understanding.Language:The different meanings of and specialized ways (jargon) in which senders use words can cause receivers to misinterpret their messages.National Culture:Culture influences the form, formality, openness, patterns, and use of information in communications.
17Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications Use Feedback.Simplify Language.Listen Actively.Constrain Emotions.Watch Nonverbal Clues.
18Active Listening Behaviors Source: Based on P.L. Hunsaker, Training in Management Skills (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001).
19Types of Organizational Communication Formal Communication:Communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job.Informal Communication:Communication that is not defined by the organization’s structural hierarchy.Permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction.Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication.
20Communication FlowsDiagonalUpwa r dDownwa r dLateral
21Direction of Communication Flow Downward:Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees.Upward:Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect.
22Direction of Communication Flow (cont’d) Lateral (Horizontal) Communication:Communication that takes place among employees on the same level in the organization to save time and facilitate coordination.Diagonal Communication:Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels in the interest of efficiency and speed.
23Types of Organizational Communication Networks Chain Network:Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward.Wheel Network:All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group.All-Channel Network:Communications flow freely among all members of the work team.
24Three Common Organizational Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria
25The GrapevineAn informal organizational communication network that is active in almost every organization:Provides a channel for issues not suitable for formal communication channels.The impact of information passed along the grapevine can be countered by open and honest communication with employees.
27What Is Motivation? Motivation: Is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is not a personal trait.Is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal.Energy: a measure of intensity or drive.Direction: toward organizational goalsPersistence: exerting effort to achieve goals.Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.
28Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.MacGregor’s Theories X and Y.Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory.
29HistoryAbraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development.
30Continued…Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever.
31Continued…Abraham Maslow's book Motivation and Personality, published in 1954 (second edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended his ideas in other work, notably his later book Toward A Psychology Of Being, a significant and relevant commentary, which has been revised in recent times by Richard Lowry, who is in his own right a leading academic in the field of motivational psychology.
32Continued…Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970, although various publications appear in Maslow's name in later years. Maslow's PhD in psychology in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin formed the basis of his motivational research, initially studying rhesus monkeys. Maslow later moved to New York's Brooklyn College.
33Continued…The Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs five-stage model below (structure and terminology - not the precise pyramid diagram itself) is clearly and directly attributable to Maslow; later versions of the theory with added motivational stages are not so clearly attributable to Maslow. These extended models have instead been inferred by others from Maslow's work.
35Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Each of us is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all.Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself.
36Continued…Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development.Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher order needs.
37Continued…Maslow's original Hierarchy of Needs model was developed between , and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in At this time the Hierarchy of Needs model comprised five needs. This original version remains for most people the definitive Hierarchy of Needs.
38Continued… Biological and Physiological needs: (air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.2. Safety needs:(protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.3. Belongingness and Love needs:(work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.
39Continued…4. Esteem needs: (self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 5. Self-Actualization needs: (realising personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
40Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs.Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.Hierarchy of needs:Lower-order (external): physiological, safety.Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization.
42Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:Theory XAssumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.Theory YAssumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.Assumption:Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
43Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory:Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction.Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction.Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance.The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
45Motivation and Needs Three-Needs Theory (McClelland): There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work.Need for achievement (nAch)The drive to excel and succeed.Need for power (nPow)The need to influence the behavior of others.Need of affiliation (nAff)The desire for interpersonal relationships.
46Designing Motivating Jobs Job Design:The way into which tasks can be combined to form complete jobs:Factors influencing job design:Changing organizational environment/structureThe organization’s technologyEmployees’ skill, abilities, and preferencesJob enlargement:Increasing the job’s scope (number and frequency of tasks)Job enrichment:Increasing responsibility and autonomy (depth) in a job.
47Designing Motivating Jobs (cont’d) Job Characteristics Model (JCM):A conceptual framework for designing motivating jobs that create meaningful work experiences that satisfy employees’ growth needs.Five primary job characteristics:Skill variety: how many skills and talents are needed?Task identity: does the job produce a complete work?Task significance: how important is the job?Autonomy: how much independence does the jobholder have?Feedback: do workers know how well they are doing?
48Job Characteristics Model Source: J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Improving Life at Work (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1977). With permission of the authors.
49Guidelines for Job Redesign Source: J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Improving Life at Work (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1977). With permission of the authors.
50Designing Motivating Jobs (cont’d) Suggestions for Using the JCM:Combine tasks (job enlargement) to create more meaningful work.Create natural work units to make employees’ work important and whole.Establish external and internal client relationships to provide feedback.Expand jobs vertically (job enrichment) by giving employees more autonomy.Open feedback channels to let employees know how well they are doing.
51Current Issues in Motivation Cross-Cultural Challenges:Motivational programs are most applicable in cultures where individualism and quality of life are cultural characteristicsUncertainty avoidance of some cultures inverts Maslow’s needs hierarchy.The need for achievement (nAch) is lacking in other cultures.Collectivist cultures view rewards as “entitlements” to be distributed based on individual needs, not individual performance.Cross-Cultural ConsistenciesInteresting work is widely desired, as is growth, achievement, and responsibility.
52Current Issues in Motivation (cont’d) Motivating Unique Groups of Workers:Motivating a diverse workforce through flexibility:Men desire more autonomy than do women.Women desire learning opportunities, flexible work schedules, and good interpersonal relations.
53Current Issues in Motivation (cont’d) Flexible Work/Job schedules:Compressed work week:Longer daily hours, but fewer days.Flexible work hours (flextime):Specific weekly hours with varying arrival, departure, lunch and break times around certain core hours during which all employees must be present.Job Sharing:Two or more people split a full-time job.Telecommuting:Employees work from home using computer links.
54Current Issues in Motivation (cont’d) Motivating Contingent Workers:Opportunity to become a permanent employee.Opportunity for training.Equity in compensation and benefits.Motivating Low-Skilled, Minimum-Wage Employees:Employee recognition programs.Provision of sincere praise.
55From Theory to Practice: Guidelines for Motivating Employees Use goals.Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable.Individualize rewards.Link rewards to performance.Check the system for equity.Use recognition.Show care and concern for employees.Don’t ignore money.
57Leaders and Leadership Leader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority.Leadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goals.Ideally, all managers should be leaders.Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge, those are not the leaders we’re studying.
58Early Leadership Theories Trait Theories (1920s-30s):Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from nonleaders was unsuccessful.Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership:Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion.
59Seven Traits Associated with Leadership Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765–780.
60Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) Behavioral Theories:University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin).Identified three leadership styles:Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation.Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback.Laissez faire style: hands-off management.Research findings: mixed results:No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance.Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.
61Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) Behavioral Theories (cont’d):Ohio State Studies.Identified two dimensions of leader behavior:Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group membersConsideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings.Research findings: mixed results:High-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved high group task performance and satisfaction.Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness.
62Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) Behavioral Theories (cont’d):University of Michigan Studies.Identified two dimensions of leader behaviorEmployee oriented: emphasizing personal relationshipsProduction oriented: emphasizing task accomplishmentResearch findings:Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.
63The Managerial Grid Managerial Grid: Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:Concern for peopleConcern for productionPlaces managerial styles in five categories:Impoverished managementTask managementMiddle-of-the-road managementCountry club managementTeam management
65Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT):Argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness.Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader.Readiness: the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent.
66Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT):Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:Telling: high task-low relationship leadershipSelling: high task-high relationship leadershipParticipating: low task-high relationship leadershipDelegating: low task-low relationship leadership
67Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT):Posits four stages follower readiness:R1: followers are unable and unwillingR2: followers are unable but willingR3: followers are able but unwillingR4: followers are able and willing
68Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Path-Goal Model:States that the leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals.Leaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation:Directive leader.Supportive leader.Participative leader.Achievement oriented leader.
69Contemporary Views on Leadership Transactional Leadership:Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.Transformational Leadership:Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization by clarifying role and task requirements.Leaders who also are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.
70Contemporary Views…(cont’d) Charismatic Leadership:An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways.Characteristics of charismatic leaders:Have a vision.Are able to articulate the vision.Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs.Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
71Contemporary Views…(cont’d) Visionary Leadership:A leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation.Visionary leaders have the ability to:Explain the vision to others.Express the vision not just verbally but through behavior.Extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts.
72Contemporary Views…(cont’d) Team Leadership Characteristics:Having patience to share information.Being able to trust others and to give up authority.Understanding when to intervene.Team Leader’s Job:Managing the team’s external boundary.Facilitating the team process.Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individual performance, training, and communication.
74Leadership Issues in the 21st Century Managing Power:Legitimate powerThe power a leader has as a result of his or her position.Coercive powerThe power a leader has to punish or control.Reward powerThe power to give positive benefits or rewards.Expert powerThe influence a leader can exert as a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge.Referent powerThe power of a leader that arise because of a person’s desirable resources or admired personal traits.
75Suggestions for Building Trust Practice openness.Be fair.Speak your feelings.Tell the truth.Show consistency.Fulfill your promises.Maintain confidences.Demonstrate competence.
76Gender Differences and Leadership Research Findings:Males and females use different styles:Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job.Women tend to use transformational leadership.Men tend to use transactional leadership.
77Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November , p. 75.