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Gen Chem Ch 4 Pg 110 The Atom Nucleus of positive protons and neutral neutrons Energy levels of negative electrons outside nucleus Mass = protons + neutrons.

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Presentation on theme: "Gen Chem Ch 4 Pg 110 The Atom Nucleus of positive protons and neutral neutrons Energy levels of negative electrons outside nucleus Mass = protons + neutrons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gen Chem Ch 4 Pg 110 The Atom Nucleus of positive protons and neutral neutrons Energy levels of negative electrons outside nucleus Mass = protons + neutrons only Neutrons = mass – protons Isotopes – same element with diff neutrons ex: carbon-12 and carbon-14 see nuclear symbols Pg 114 used in medical imaging

2 Periodic Table Ch 6 Pg Designed by Russian scientist Mendeleev late 1800’s Column 1 – alkali metals, lose 1 electron, +1 Column 2 – alkaline earth metals, lose 2, +2 Column 7 – halogens, make salts with col 1, gain 1 electron, -1 Column 8 – noble gas, full outer levels, don’t react Metalloids – stairstep line D Block – transition elements, + but varying #+

3 Trends Atomic radii Pg 170 – smaller to the right due to more attraction between protons & electrons- larger to the bottom due to more levels of electrons Ionization energy Pg 173 – energy needed to remove an electron – higher to the right because almost full, lower to the bottom due to farther from nucleus Electronegativity Pg 177– attraction for electrons – higher to right, lower to bottom

4 Ch 5 Pg 138 Light Know spectrum from handout Speed of light C = 3 x 10 8 m/s C = wavelength in m x frequency in Hertz c=wf Light is a photon particle that travels in a wave Quantum is amt of energy of light given off by electron falling from higher unstable level Energy = h x frequency E=hf h = Planck’s constant x J-s

5 Electron Configurations Pg Aufbau – fill levels starting with lowest Pauli – 2 electrons per orbital, spinning in opposite directions Hund – fill by putting one electron in each orbital in same direction, then put 2 nd electron in other direction Know how to write electron config, orbital notations with arrows, and noble gas notation


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