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Honors Chem Ch 3 Pg 77 The Atom Nucleus of positive protons and neutral neutrons Energy levels of negative electrons outside nucleus Mass = protons + neutrons.

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Presentation on theme: "Honors Chem Ch 3 Pg 77 The Atom Nucleus of positive protons and neutral neutrons Energy levels of negative electrons outside nucleus Mass = protons + neutrons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Honors Chem Ch 3 Pg 77 The Atom Nucleus of positive protons and neutral neutrons Energy levels of negative electrons outside nucleus Mass = protons + neutrons only Neutrons = mass – protons Isotopes – same element with diff neutrons ex: carbon-12 and carbon-14 see nuclear symbols Pg 79 used in medical imaging

2 Avogadro’s Number The Mole Pg 83 Mole = 6.02 x particles Particles can be atoms for elements or molecules for compounds Mole also = # grams from pd table Given x wanted/given = wanted ex: Grams x mole/grams = moles ex: Mole x atoms/mole = atoms

3 Ch 4 Pg 96 Light Know spectrum from handout Speed of light C = 3 x 10 8 m/s C = wavelength in m x frequency in Hertz c=wf Light is a photon particle that travels in a wave Quantum is amt of energy of light given off by electron falling from higher unstable level Energy = h x frequency E=hf h = Planck’s constant x J-s

4 Electron Configurations Pg 111 Aufbau – fill levels starting with lowest Pauli – 2 electrons per orbital, spinning in opposite directions Hund – fill by putting one electron in each orbital in same direction, then put 2 nd electron in other direction Know how to write electron config, orbital notations with arrows, and noble gas notation

5 Periodic Table Ch 5 Pg 142 Designed by Russian scientist Mendeleev late 1800’s Column 1 – alkali metals, lose 1 electron, +1 Column 2 – alkaline earth metals, lose 2, +2 Column 7 – halogens, make salts with col 1, gain 1 electron, -1 Column 8 – noble gas, full outer levels, don’t react Metalloids – stairstep line D Block – transition elements, + but varying #+

6 Trends Atomic radii Pg 151 – smaller to the right due to more attraction between protons & electrons- larger to the bottom due to more levels of electrons Ionization energy Pg 153 – energy needed to remove an electron – higher to the right because almost full, lower to the bottom due to farther from nucleus Electronegativity Pg 161– attraction for electrons – higher to right, lower to bottom


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