Presentation on theme: "History of Journalism First Newspapers, Radio, Television, the Impact of Other Media."— Presentation transcript:
History of Journalism First Newspapers, Radio, Television, the Impact of Other Media
From McPaper to USA TODAY At first called: “junk food journalism” and “McNugget” (1982) Critics said: USA TODAY only gave tidbits of information, and no substance. So how and why did USA TODAY gain popularity?
USA TODAY’s Popularity Short, lively stories Liberal use of color Integrated use of graphics Full-page weather map Became first national newspaper
What can we do to be more like USA TODAY? Write down some ideas!
First Newspapers History of Newspapers Chapter One of Exploring Journalism and the Media
What are Newspapers? Newspapers are publications that contain information about: Current events Features on various topics Advertisements
Colonial Newspapers Most news traveled by travelers and letters. First Newspaper: Publick Occurrences both Foreign and Domestick (Benjamin Harris) Contained essay letters and opinions of the editor. By 1750, colonies had 14 weekly newspapers; by 1770’s/ 89 newspapers.
Penny Press Mid-19 th Century Concept of newspapers change Shift from opinion to current events. 1833, Benjamin Day publishes the New York Sun, sold for 1 cent per copy.
Penny Press Penny Press newspapers were named after the cost, 1 cent. Sold on street corners Price and easy access=popularity.
Penny Press Due to advances in printing technology, thousands of papers could be printed every hour. This lead to increased circulation and a paper’s influence.
Penny Press In 1835, James Gordon Bennett published the New York Herald. Bennett is considered the founder of modern-day journalism. Turned his newspaper into a money-making business that was free of government or political party control.
Civil War and the Telegraph During The War between the States, newspapers introduced war correspondents. To get stories to the papers in the North, journalists in the South used the telegraph to transmit stories.
Civil War and the Telegraph In case telegraph broke down, journalists wrote in a more concise style, putting most important facts first. This format – the inverted pyramid – is still used today.
Yellow Journalism Mid-1890s, newspapers competing for advertising dollars and readers began an era of sensationalism. Yellow journalism came to represent screaming headlines and cheap melodrama. (Think tabloids!)
Yellow Journalism Stories were made up of half-truths No ethics involved Self-promotion was shameless William Randolph Hearst (San Francisco Examiner/ New York Morning News) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) were the most notable yellow journalists.
Muckraking As yellow journalism ended, journalists moved into the role of promoting social responsibility. Investigated corruption (especially big business), social institutions and politics Journalist, activist. Nellie Bly was the pseudonym of Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman, a New York journalist whose muckraking made her a 19th century celebrity. A victim of personal hardship growing up, she specialized in stories of the downtrodden. She became nationally known for reporting on rotten workplace conditions and government corruption.
Muckraking Beginning of investigative journalism. Journalists took pride in becoming known as muckrakers.
The First Amendment Journalists are given certain rights guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The first Amendment is the first of 10 amendments to the Constitution (Bill of Rights). Provides the rights to free speech and free press.
The First Amendment This amendment protects journalists form censorship. Censorship is the prevention, or attempted prevention, of printing or broadcasting materials that are considered by some people to be objectionable.
Quick Quiz The first newspapers were filled with… The editor’s opinion Penny presses were popular because… Of the price and easy access. Muckrakers were proud of the title because it meant the journalists were… Investigating corruption What freedoms are protected by the First Amendment? Free Speech and Press, Religion and to Assemble Peaceably.
Radio, Television and the Impact of Other Media History of Newspapers Chapter One of Exploring Journalism and the Media
Media for the Masses Mass media refers to all the channels of communication that reach a large audience. Examples: Newspapers, magazines, radio, TV and high-speed Internet connections.
Radio Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began experimenting with the wire-less telegraph in NBC created in 1926 CBS created in 1927
Radio 1930s is considered the Golden Age of Radio. Americans listened to: music, drama, comedy, variety shows and news Jack Benny and Bob Hope were popular.
Radio Important information tool WWII correspondent Edward R. Murrow brought news from the front lines. Franklin D. Roosevelt made declaration of war over radio on Dec. 8, 1941.
Television Development began in late 1800s. 1927, first picture transmitted – a dollar sign. By 1950s, TV replaced the radio as the preferred medium of news and entertainment.
Television Like radio station, TV stations were affiliated with networks. Networks: groups of stations that broadcast the same programs at the same time. Edward R. Murrow transitioned from radio to TV.
Television TV newscasts started out as 10-minute programs Became longer due to demand TV newscasts “killed” the daily afternoon newspapers.
The Internet In 2000, the Internet changed how journalists researched and reported the news. Not only does Internet provide credible information sites, it also gives society access to that information and to each other.
The Internet How Internet helps journalists: Preliminary research interviews Photographers can send digital photos from anywhere A PDF file of an ad or a completed page can be sent to customers and editors.
The Internet Newspapers have adopted Internet sites. Add features such as Web logs, or blogs. Blogs are journals written by reporters with specialty fields or interests.
The Internet News organizations realize that consumers have multiple platforms on which to get information. Such as: newspapers, Web sites, , cell phones, MP3s, iPods (podcasts)
The Internet Due to multiple media (adding visual and audio to a story), journalists write the same story in different forms. (For example: one style for printed news, another for the Web site. The merging of the media and the platforms is called convergence.
Quick Quiz Which medium has had the greatest impact on mass media since 2000? The Internet Which medium was an important means of reaching the public during World War II? Radio Which medium replaced radio as the most popular of the mass media in the 1950s? Television True or False? The internet changed the way journalists conduct research. True True or False? The term convergence refers to merging the media, such as print, broadcast and Internet, with the platform, such as a newspaper’s Web site and a podcast. True
Bibliography Lynch, Lorrie. Exploring Journalism and the Media. South-Western Cengage Learning, Ohio