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History of American Journalism

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Presentation on theme: "History of American Journalism"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of American Journalism

2 Benjamin Harris 1690 First newspaper published in America
Publick Occurrences was the paper Only one edition printed

3 John Peter Zenger Newspaper editor put on trial for criticism of government His acquittal forms the basis of the 1st Amendment and our right to argue against our leaders in print

4 Stamp Act 1765 Decree by the King of England
Established tax on newspaper per page Result was the increase of size for papers

5 Penny Press 1833 Benjamin Day sold his newspaper for 1 penny
New York Sun gained a large circulation

6 Associated Press 1848 Telegraph wire allows for a network of papers
This network forms the basis of the modern AP wire service still crucial in journalism

7 1860 his New York Herald becomes the largest selling newspaper in the world
Established the use of “beat reporters” crucial in his success James Gordon Bennett

8 His paper the New York World is first to use cartoons and regular sports coverage
Greatly broadens the appeal of papers and its readership Joseph Pulitzer 1883

9 William Randolph Hearst
1895 most notorious example of yellow journalism Helps to push America into the Spanish American War “You provide the pictures, I’ll provide the war” Famous for his controversial and sensational journalism style William Randolph Hearst

10 Editor in 1896 of the New York Times who made the famous paper
His motto was “ONLY THE NEWS FIT TO PRINT” Established an objective style of reporting that was the standard for a century in America Adolph Ochs

11 KDKA Nov. 2, 1920 First commercial broadcast use of the radio
Pittsburgh, Pa (still on the air) Covered the presidential race KDKA Nov. 2, 1920

12 Conflict between radio and papers over content access
Government stepped in and demanded that newspaper share information with radio news Result was that papers began to establish their own radio stations Radio Press War

13 Dorothy Day 1933 Established the Catholic Worker
Famous for a new style of journalism called “crusading” in which her paper fought injustice with its stories Dorothy Day 1933

14 Dewey Defeats Truman Most famous error in newspaper history
Chicago Tribune printed the wrong winner in the election of 1948 Highlights the rush to report the news first which is even worse today Dewey Defeats Truman

15 Edward Murrow Tv journalist for CBS
Set the gold standard for excellence Featured in a recent film entitled Good Night and Good Luck - his signature sign off Edward Murrow

16 The original alternative paper established in New York’s Greenwich Village
Presented a different perspective and featured marginalized figures Village Voice

17 Walter Cronkite CBS TV anchor for over two decades starting in 1962
Covered the assasination of JFK His shift about the Vietnam War swayed much of America Walter Cronkite

18 Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 eventually led to the establishment of these two important public networks PBS has set the standard for children’s programming NPR remains one of the few viable radio news outlets NPR and PBS

19 60 Minutes First TV news magazine show in primetime
Became the most popular show in America in 1981 and throughout much of the 1980s Made TV news a VERY profitable form of programming and led to 20/20 , 48 Hours, Dateline, etc 60 Minutes

20 1972-1973 the Washington Post did a series of articles on President Nixon’s involvement
Defined the style known as “Investigative Journalism” Inspired a generation of youngsters to go into reporting Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein admired for not backing down even to the president Watergate Scandal

21 CNN First 24 hour news source
Creates a desire for up to the minute reporting CNN

22 USA Today Established in 1982 as a national paper
Highly visual – with lots of color and graphics so more like tv Gains a huge circulation through its placement in hotels and McDonald chains USA Today

23 Worldwideweb 1993 Creates a new outlet for immediate news
Allows consumers to begin to contribute to the news Changes the economic model for delivering the news Worldwideweb 1993

24 FOX news The main news source fo conservatives
Shifts news from objectivity toward a clear and transparent stance on issues/politics Offers more opinion than factual reporting as a 24 hour news outlet FOX news

25 Blogging 1999 Creates a new source of information
Allows people to be “citizen journalists” Often comments on news provided by traditional media Blogging 1999

26 “Fake news” – a show on Comedy Central that satirizes people in the news and other news sources
Won 18 Emmys over the past decade Very popular among young viewers and a main source of news for many college students Daily Show 2003

27 The Year the Paper Died 2009 over 100 newspapers go out of business
Caused by economic downturn and losses in both circulation and advertising revenue The Year the Paper Died

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