UTAH’S AIS FISH Mosquito Fish Burbot Gizzard Shad Other non-native fish AMPHIBIANS Bullfrog Green Frog Plains Leopard Frog Rio Grande Leopard Frog
UTAH’S AIS REPTILES Red-eared Slider New Mexico Whiptail OTHER Discarded Aquarium Fauna or Flora (e.g. gold fish) Aqua-scaping Bait Releases Private Aquaculture
Utah’s AIS Task Force Prepare a Mgmt Plan UDWR (chair) DNR (SP&R, Water Resources) UT Dept Ag DEQ USFWS USFS BLM NPS BOR URMCC Water Conservancy Districts UT Angler Assoc. Industry Water Users UDWR’s Team Aquatic Coordinator Outreach Coordinator 5 AIS Biologists 22 Wildlife Technicians 5 Conservation Officers $1.64 Million/yr
Dreissena Mussel Example Quagga, Zebra & Conrad’s False A Threat To Utah “forever keep them out” or “forever live with them” Utah Division of Wildlife Resources
Dreissena Spread Rapidly Native to Russia--spread throughout Europe Arrived St. Lawrence Seaway mid 1980s Spread: Great Lakes, Canada & U.S. Mississippi River Basin to New Orleans East & Mid West US (100 th Meridian) January 2007 Arrived Western U.S. Lower Colorado River * Mead (NV) * Mohave (AZ) * Havasu (CA) Lake Powell, August 07
Understanding Dreissena Mussels Invasive, non-native Quagga, Zebra & Conrad’s False Species much alike (two-shelled – like a clam) Sexual Reproduction via Spawning (3 mm) 1,000,000 veligers per year Colonies can be 12” deep Quagga are a greater problem colder, deeper & soft substrates Quagga displaces Zebra Adult: Zebra = 12 mm; Quagga = 20 mm Larvae: Veligers = microscopic to sand grain sized
DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTS Maintenance Perspective Typical Maintenance Expenditures in the East 51% electric generation (steam & hydro) 31% water treatment 18% industrial & other water users East: $100 million/year West: $10 million/year Utah: estimated to exceed $15 million/year $3.2 million--electric generation (steam & hydro)—63 plants) $7.2 million--water treatment—30 plants $4.4 million—industrial & other water users $?? million--pipelines (1,120 miles) & canals (4,573 miles)
DREISSENA ECONOMIC IMPACTS Recreational Expenditure Perspective Nationally: anglers expend $40 billion annually Utah: anglers expend $708 million annually Reduced angler participation may occur: Decreased fish condition (length & weight) Fish die offs due to blue-green algae blooms Species change to less desirable species Deteriorated recreational satisfaction Odor Sharp shells Risk to equipment (overheat engines)
Dreissena Environmental Impacts They Are Filter Feeders: Remove plankton, removing fish food Filter volume of Lake Erie in 36 hours!! Feces Cause High Coliform Counts Pseudo Feces Rots Smell Oxygen depletion Blue-green algae, which releases toxin Stimulate Avian Botulism
When Fish Chow Disappears Lake Michigan Lake Trout declined 95% in 10 years--WHY? Utah’s Waters *Plankton decrease Likely *Species change Likely *Decreased “K” (length & weight) Likely *Loss of native mollusks Likely
Veligers Drift Downstream Trailered Boats Infested to non-infested waters Failure to Drain bilge Failure to Drain live wells Failure to Dry (5 days in UT) Failure to Remove plants or animals Failure to Wash w/HOT water How Mussels Move RISKS Large commercial boats (huge risk) Owner-pulled boats (less risk)
Dreissena Became A Western U.S. Problem January 2007 Quagga Lower Colorado River Lake Mead Lake Mohave Lake Havasu Colorado River NV Fish Hatchery CA Reservoir ( Copper Basin )
Dreissena Now a Utah Problem Top 20 destinations of Lake Mead boaters #3 Lake Powell #11 Pineview Reservoir #12 Bear Lake #14 Willard Bay #19 Jordanelle Reservoir August 2007– veligers detected in Lake Powell 29% of Utah’s Boaters Use Lake Powell Where Do Lake Powell Boaters Go In Utah ? EVERY WHERE
IMPACTS: Industrial Plants Lots of Industries in Utah Use Water Constricted water intakes Constricted water circulation systems Increased: biologic load corrosion plant operation costs
IMPACTS: Pipelines Over 1,120 miles of pipelines in Utah Greatly reduced flow capacity Its not just on the outside; its inside, too 2 ND Water Systems: plugged--pipes & sprinklers Increased maintenance cost ????
IMPACTS: Canals Over 4,573 miles of canals in Utah Open-channel flow capacity reduced Earth-lined: 24% less flow Concrete-lined: 52% less flow Increased maintenance cost ????
IMPACTS: Reservoirs 150 ac (Storage & Recreation) Seasonal Water Level Changes = routine Die Offs (fish & waterfowl) Deteriorated water quality & odor Difficult beach use: clean up $$$$ Increased maintenance cost ????
HOW DO WE DEAL WITH DREISSENA Successful Mussel Prevention Example Minnesota: Land of 10,000 Lakes 20 years exposure: commercial & recreation vessels 4 lakes & Mississippi River infested Effective Aquatic Nuisance Species Plan Emphasis on public education & awareness 12 full-time employees 45 summer watercraft inspectors Illegal drive w/any mussel $2.3 million annual budget
Emergency Responses in Utah: NPS NPS Initiated Self-Certification at Lake Powell Education & Outreach Media Coverage “Zap the Zebra” brochures Entry warning signs Self-certification Interdictions Decontamination Containment ???? Monitoring & Research Training (UDWR & SP&R and others)
Emergency Response in Utah: UDWR DNR Policy: Prevent Invasion of Dreissena Mussel UDWR: Lead State Agency Inter-state & Interagency Coordination Quagga Education & Implementation Plan Education & Outreach Statewide: Media Coverage Statewide: 250,000 “Zap the Zebra” brochures (Included all 65,000 UT Boat Owners) Statewide: 1,500 boat launch signs Statewide: 4,500 posters Statewide: sportsmen/agency lectures Interdiction Decontamination of Equipment Containment ???? Monitoring & Research Training (UDWR & SP&R and Others)
Utah’s AIS Future I. Maintain Sufficient Budget: FY08 $1,106,500 FY09 $1,640,000 II. Secure Legislation for an Interdiction Act III. Write AIS Management Plan IV. Be Vigilant ……………………..…………………….. Memmorandum From: UDWR To: Aquatic Invasive Species Subject: Watch Out, We’re Coming!