3What does INVASIVE mean? Invasive species are species that are NOT native to Minnesota and cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.Minnesota's natural resources are threatened by a number of invasive species.
4How do they get to Minnesota? Plants and animals have always traveled with us. The more we travel, the more species we unknowingly transport. Our transportation methods then become pathways for invasive speciesThere are many such pathways, some more important than others:Importation of seeds, plants, fruits, and vegetables.Ballast water discharged from ships. (aquatic species)Soil brought in with nursery stock.Abandoned pets and ornamental plants.
5The Great Lakes: Navigation “Soo” Canal (1855)(Sault St. Marie)St. LawrenceSeaway (1959)Welland Canal(1829)At the Soo Canal:Typical “down-bound” (Eastward) cargo:The “Big 3” of Great Lakes Shipping:- grains (especially wheat)- coal (lignite and sub-bitumunous from Upper Great Plains)- processed iron ore (taconite)
6LIMESTONE #1 COAL #1 IRON ORE #2 GRAINS #1 Coming In: “Upbound” From US sources:LIMESTONE#1Going Out:“Downbound”To USMarkets:COAL #1IRON ORE #2Going Out:“Downbound”For OverseasMarkets:GRAINS #1
7Ballast Water Management Every day, large quantities of ballast water from all over the world are discharged into United States waters.Carried in this water are plants, animals, bacteria, and pathogens.These organisms range in size from microscopic to large plants and free-swimming fish. These organisms have the potential to become aquatic nuisance species (ANS).ANS may displace native species, degrade native habitats, spread disease, and disrupt human social and economic activities that depend on water resources.Any ship carrying ballast water is apotential invasion source fornon-native (exotic) species.
9Ballast Water Management In recent years there has been increased international focus on Ballast Water Management (BWM) due to the ecological, economic, and potential health threats caused by the spread of ANS from ballast water.The United States Coast Guard is responding to these concerns through a comprehensive national BWM program.This program applies to all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks that operate in U.S. waters and are bound for ports or places in the U.S.
10Ballast Water Management Present Ballast Water Management PracticesCurrently, ballast water exchange is the only effective management tool to reduce the risk of ballast-mediated invasion.Ballast water exchange involves replacing coastal water with open-ocean water during a voyage.This process reduces the density of coastal organisms in ballast tanks that may be able to invade a recipient port, replacing them with oceanic organisms with a lower probability of survival in near-shore waters.
11Invasive SpeciesSea lamprey, carp, smelt, alewife, Pacific salmon, zebra mussels, goby, ruffe, and othersMost arrive via ships’ ballast water from international portsMost arrived after the alteration of the Great Lakes system via Welland Canal (1830s and 1930s) and the St. Lawrence Seaway (1950s)
12Aquatic Nuisance Species Invasive SpeciesAquatic Nuisance SpeciesMore than 160 non-indigenous species have entered the Great Lakes.Of these, some 10 % are considered nuisance species, profoundly altering native ecosystems and processes.Many non-indigenous species arrived from foreign ports, harbored in the ballast water of ocean-going freighters.
13Zebra Mussels1988The zebra mussel has been steadily invading America's rivers and lakes since it was first introduced in Lake St. Clair (near Detroit, Michigan) in 1988 via ballast water.Zebra mussels are native to Russia’s Black and Caspian Sea region(example of “movement map” for project)
18Spiny Water FleaThe spiny water flea is one of the most recent species to enter the Great Lakes (1st discovered in 1998)It is an exotic species that preys upon native zooplankton in the Great Lakes.Due to its sword-like tail, juvenile fish such as perch and walleye cannot swallow it, thus enabling the spiny water flea to outcompete other zooplankton species.
20Asian CarpAsian carp have been found in the Illinois River, which connects the Mississippi River to Lake Michigan.Due to their large size and rapid rate of reproduction, these fish pose a significant risk to the Great Lakes ecosystem.To prevent the carp from entering the Great Lakes, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. EPA, the State of Illinois, the International Joint Commission, the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are working together to install and maintain a permanent electric barrier between the fish and Lake Michigan.
23The Project Groups of two. Research for 3 days. Create a “movement map” and a Power Point.Present your Power point at the end of the week to classCan only do 1 of the 13 aquatic invasive species listed1. Bighead and Silver Carp2. Common Carp3. Zebra Mussel4. Spiny water flea5. Sea Lamprey6. White Perch7. Round Goby8. Ruffe9. Grass Carp10. Rusty Crayfish11. Chinese and Banded Mystery Snails12. Faucet Snail13. New Zealand Mud Snail
24Guest SpeakerAquatic Invasive Species Prevention Questions on aquatic invasive species permits, aquatic invasive species laws and regulations, education and public awareness, and prevention grants.Jay Rendall Invasive Species Prevention CoordinatorStudents will write a reaction paper about the guest speaker and what they learned.(This will take place on the 5th day of the lesson plan)
25“Ask-an-Expert about the Minnesota River” profiles scientists and citizens answering questions aboutthe health of the Minnesota River.Produced by the Water Resources Center at Minnesota State University, MankatoTo learn more, visit the Minnesota River Basin Data:mrbdc.mnsu.edu/learn