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The Zebra Mussel What A Homeowner Needs to Know 1.

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Presentation on theme: "The Zebra Mussel What A Homeowner Needs to Know 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Zebra Mussel What A Homeowner Needs to Know 1

2 June Lake St. Clair 2

3 Zebra Mussel U.S. Range December

4 December 1990 Zebra Mussel U.S. Range 4

5 December 1992 Zebra Mussel U.S. Range 5

6 December

7 Potential Zebra Mussel U.S. Range December 2020? 7

8 Recreational Boating... The most likely inland spread vector 8

9 Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contact Chamber (Monroe, MI, WTP) 9

10 Circulating Water Pump Bell Housing (Detroit Edison, Monroe, MI) 10

11 But… Huge pipes arent the only ones at risk. Zebra mussels are already clogging thousands of small intakes, as well. 11

12 Densities of mussel veligers in water column are low Densities of mussel veligers in water column are low Power plants and drinking water facilities have huge water demands and draw in millions of veligers Power plants and drinking water facilities have huge water demands and draw in millions of veligers Power plants and water treatment plants pump water for long periods of time, sucking in more veligers Power plants and water treatment plants pump water for long periods of time, sucking in more veligers Many residential systems may face imminent failure but havent been clogged yet Many residential systems may face imminent failure but havent been clogged yet Many people affected by power plant or water treat- ment plant shutdowns; clogged residential pipes impact fewer Many people affected by power plant or water treat- ment plant shutdowns; clogged residential pipes impact fewer Why Havent We Heard of This Problem Before Now? Early colonization is spotty with low mussel densities Early colonization is spotty with low mussel densities 12

13 Watch carefully… Zebra Mussels come in ALL sizes and coloration patterns 13

14 Water Intakes = Excellent Zebra Mussel Habitat Continuous removal of wastes Continuous removal of wastes Protection from predation Protection from predation Protection from severe weather Protection from severe weather Continuous source of food and oxygen Continuous source of food and oxygen 14

15 Byssal Threads….. The zebra mussel's secret weapon 15

16 16

17 Zebra mussels can completely plug small water intake pipes in very little time 17

18 Zebra Mussels in Residential Water Systems Zebra Mussels in Residential Water Systems 18

19 Zebra Mussel Fouling of Residential Water Systems Strainer Strainer Foot valve Foot valve Pump Pump Pipe itself Pipe itself Storage/pressure tank Storage/pressure tank Distribution pipes Distribution pipes Intake pipe Intake pipe 19

20 Zebra Mussel Impacts on Residential Water Systems Obstruction of foot valve Obstruction of foot valve Clogging of intake pipe Clogging of intake pipe Wear & tear on pump Wear & tear on pump Clogging of distribution pipes Clogging of distribution pipes Taste & odor problems Taste & odor problems Increased corrosion Increased corrosion Loss of pumping efficiency Loss of pumping efficiency 20

21 Is there a noticeable decrease in water volume and pressure? Is there a noticeable decrease in water volume and pressure? Are there unpleasant tastes and odors in the water? Are there unpleasant tastes and odors in the water? Are mussels growing around or within mouth of pipe? Are mussels growing around or within mouth of pipe? 21

22 Factors Influencing Rate of Zebra Mussel Fouling of Residential Water Systems Extent of zebra mussel colonization near mouth of intake Extent of zebra mussel colonization near mouth of intake Position of the mouth of intake in the water Position of the mouth of intake in the water Composition of the intake pipe Composition of the intake pipe Volume and velocity of water flowing through the pipe Volume and velocity of water flowing through the pipe Water chemistry of the waterbody Water chemistry of the waterbody 22

23 Reducing the Risk of Zebra Mussel Fouling Reducing the Risk of Zebra Mussel Fouling 23

24 Periodically (some mussel growth is allowed, followed by removal of the mussels) Periodically (some mussel growth is allowed, followed by removal of the mussels) When to Implement Zebra Mussel Control in Residential Water Systems Continually (no mussels tolerated ever) Continually (no mussels tolerated ever) 24

25 Residential Water Systems 25

26 Residential Water Systems 26

27 Most difficult to protect Most difficult to protect Often least costly to repair Often least costly to repair Residential Water Systems 27

28 Easiest to protect Easiest to protect Most costly to repair Most costly to repair Residential Water Systems 28

29 Protecting the Onshore Component of Residential Water Systems Protecting the Onshore Component of Residential Water Systems 29

30 Onshore Component Control Alternatives Chlorine injection at pump or pressure tank Chlorine injection at pump or pressure tank Combination of filtration & chlorination Combination of filtration & chlorination Replaceable or cleanable in-line filter Replaceable or cleanable in-line filter 30

31 In-Line Filtration 40 micron maximum 31 Removes all life stages

32 Whole House In-Line Filters Ceramic filters (50 ) Ceramic filters (50 ) Spun cellulose or ceramic fiber cartridges (<10 ) Spun cellulose or ceramic fiber cartridges (<10 ) Dual media filters Dual media filters Fiber media around activated charcoal core (<10 ) Fiber media around activated charcoal core (<10 ) Removes many flavors & odors Removes many flavors & odors Back-flushable filters or microstrainers (<10 ) Back-flushable filters or microstrainers (<10 ) Single media filamentous angel hair ( ) Single media filamentous angel hair ( ) 32

33 Whole House In-Line Filters Require periodic filter cartridge replacement Require periodic filter cartridge replacement Increased backpressure can force live larvae through filter Increased backpressure can force live larvae through filter Back-flushable filters clean filter media by reversing flow of water and flushing out filter media Back-flushable filters clean filter media by reversing flow of water and flushing out filter media Least expensive Least expensive 33

34 Whole House In-Line Filters Amount of silt, algae, zebra mussel veligers, and other particles drawn into system Amount of silt, algae, zebra mussel veligers, and other particles drawn into system Intakes location in the waterbody Intakes location in the waterbody Time of year Time of year Cleaning / replacement timing depends upon: 34 Spring & summer silt loads Spring & summer silt loads Storm silt loads Storm silt loads Summer algal growth Summer algal growth

35 Whole House In-Line Filters Cleaning / replacement of clogged filters is an on-going cost & time commitment Cleaning / replacement of clogged filters is an on-going cost & time commitment Automatic back-flushable filters can eliminate one of the maintenance tasks Automatic back-flushable filters can eliminate one of the maintenance tasks Do not allow material trapped within filter to bypass the filter during cleaning / replacement Do not allow material trapped within filter to bypass the filter during cleaning / replacement 35

36 In-Line Chlorination Kills all life stages Kills many other pathogens Remove taste with carbon filter 36

37 Filter-Chlorinator Combo Healthier water Kills or removes all mussels 37

38 Hand-Driven Shore Well Pumphouse Driven pipe with well point Infiltration from waterbody 38

39 "High Tech" Shore Well 39

40 Shore Well with Infiltration Channel 40

41 41

42 May not be viable alternative where: May not be viable alternative where: No available aquifer No available aquifer Sulfurous water Sulfurous water Salty water Salty water Polluted ground water Polluted ground water Drilled Wells The ultimate onshore preventive measure 42

43 Offshore Strainers Effectiveness depends upon: Mesh size of screen Mesh size of screen Size of mussels being drawn into pipe Size of mussels being drawn into pipe Common mesh on small intake (1/4 - 1/2 inch) keeps out leaves but not zebra mussel veligers (as small as 70 {3/1000 inch}) Common mesh on small intake (1/4 - 1/2 inch) keeps out leaves but not zebra mussel veligers (as small as 70 {3/1000 inch}) Simple screens are ineffective as a zebra mussel control method Simple screens are ineffective as a zebra mussel control method Use of screens or strainers at intake end of pipe 43

44 Offshore Strainers Too small openings can clog quickly with silt, algae, and debris Too small openings can clog quickly with silt, algae, and debris Screens can become fouled Screens can become fouled Effectiveness can be increased by reducing mesh size 44

45 Offshore Filtration Manufactured alternatives Prefabricated sand filters Prefabricated sand filters Ceramic filters Ceramic filters Cartridge filters Cartridge filters Constructed alternatives Infiltration galleries Infiltration galleries Raised fill beds Raised fill beds 45

46 46

47 Infiltration Gallery 47

48 Raised Fill Bed 48

49 Backflushing Offshore Filters Backflush by pumping water from shore through pipe system to flush out fine particles Backflush by pumping water from shore through pipe system to flush out fine particles Sand beds can become compacted over time Sand beds can become compacted over time Infiltration galleries and raised fill beds will eventually clog with fine particles Infiltration galleries and raised fill beds will eventually clog with fine particles 49 Cracks can form in sand Cracks can form in sand Zebra mussel veligers can be drawn into pipe Zebra mussel veligers can be drawn into pipe Backflushing fluffs sand up, prevents cracks Backflushing fluffs sand up, prevents cracks

50 Prefabricated Sand Filter 50

51 Manufactured Offshore Filters When, where, how long, under what conditions have filters been field tested? When, where, how long, under what conditions have filters been field tested? Names of clients with filters in water for reasonable length of time Names of clients with filters in water for reasonable length of time What happens if system clogs prematurely? What happens if system clogs prematurely? Is automatic backwashing available as option? Is automatic backwashing available as option? Homeowners should investigate the product 51

52 Offshore Filters and Water Potability By itself, offshore filtration is not intended to provide potable (drinkable) water By itself, offshore filtration is not intended to provide potable (drinkable) water Additional treatment by chlorination or ultraviolet light needed to kill bacteria Additional treatment by chlorination or ultraviolet light needed to kill bacteria Consult county Cooperative Extension Service or health department about drinking water standards Offshore sand filtration can remove zebra mussels and other large particles 52

53 Environmental Impacts of Constructed Offshore Filters Permanent change in bottom habitat type from natural to human-influenced substrate Permanent change in bottom habitat type from natural to human-influenced substrate Turbidity during excavation and backfilling impacts local water quality temporarily Turbidity during excavation and backfilling impacts local water quality temporarily 53 Use trenching equipment rather than backhoes Use trenching equipment rather than backhoes Use silt screens around excavation site Use silt screens around excavation site Disturbance of natural lake or river bottom habitat Disturbance of natural lake or river bottom habitat New habitat provided by stone cover material New habitat provided by stone cover material Prefabricated sand filter minimizes habitat loss with smaller disturbance footprint Prefabricated sand filter minimizes habitat loss with smaller disturbance footprint

54 Offshore Ceramic and Cartridge Filters Porosity should be small enough so that no mussel life stages will pass live into intake pipe Porosity should be small enough so that no mussel life stages will pass live into intake pipe Available with manual or automatic backwash Available with manual or automatic backwash Should ask how often the filter media needs to be replaced or cleaned Should ask how often the filter media needs to be replaced or cleaned Abrasive ceramic filter media removes or destroys mussel veligers Abrasive ceramic filter media removes or destroys mussel veligers Cartridge filters trap particles, including zebra mussel veligers Cartridge filters trap particles, including zebra mussel veligers 54

55 Nonfouling Pipe Materials Discourage zebra mussel attachment Discourage zebra mussel attachment Lose effectiveness as they corrode or oxidize Lose effectiveness as they corrode or oxidize Should be augmented by other methods Should be augmented by other methods Copper or galvanized intake pipes 55

56 Periodic Cleaning of Offshore Component Protect onshore component with its own system Protect onshore component with its own system Install Y connection cleanout at shore end of pipe to facilitate cleaning Install Y connection cleanout at shore end of pipe to facilitate cleaning Allows some clogging by mussels, followed by periodic maintenance Allows some clogging by mussels, followed by periodic maintenance 56 Cleaning Cleaning Mechanical Mechanical Thermal Thermal Pipe replacement Pipe replacement

57 Loosened mussels must be removed by: Loosened mussels must be removed by: Pumping through a strainer at the pump Pumping through a strainer at the pump Opening foot valve and backflushing Opening foot valve and backflushing Not possible in pipes with: Not possible in pipes with: Periodic Cleaning of Offshore Component Plumbers snake for short pipes with easy access 57 Tight bends Tight bends Check valves Check valves Radical diameter changes Radical diameter changes

58 Oxygen Deprivation Seal both ends of pipe long enough for water to lose all of its oxygen Seal both ends of pipe long enough for water to lose all of its oxygen Oxygen demand greatest in warm water Oxygen demand greatest in warm water Oxygen deprivation most effective in summer Oxygen deprivation most effective in summer 2 to 3 days anaerobic water at 74º F = 100% kill 2 to 3 days anaerobic water at 74º F = 100% kill Most suited to weekend cottages that routinely have water system shutdowns Most suited to weekend cottages that routinely have water system shutdowns Year-round homes will need second intake Year-round homes will need second intake Zebra mussels breathe oxygen as water passes over their gills Zebra mussels breathe oxygen as water passes over their gills 58

59 Removable Intake Pipes Single short flexible plastic pipe directly on lakebed Single short flexible plastic pipe directly on lakebed Pull from water - leave on shore - dry in sun Pull from water - leave on shore - dry in sun Dead mussels snaked from pipe Dead mussels snaked from pipe Replace into water next weekend Replace into water next weekend Several times a season based on speed of fouling Several times a season based on speed of fouling Dual short flexible plastic pipes Dual short flexible plastic pipes Pull one-at-a-time from water, leave on shore, dry in sun, and clean Pull one-at-a-time from water, leave on shore, dry in sun, and clean Pumping continues through second pipe Pumping continues through second pipe Onshore piping protected by onshore filtration Onshore piping protected by onshore filtration Weekend cottage: low water demand & not for drinking 59

60 Thermal Treatment Hot water discharge = negative environmental impact Hot water discharge = negative environmental impact Dead mussels must be removed by backflushing Dead mussels must be removed by backflushing Portable steam generator from shore end of pipe Portable steam generator from shore end of pipe Live steam = instant kill Live steam = instant kill Less hot water discharge Less hot water discharge Periodic flushing with hot water 60 90º F for about 1 hour = 100% kill 90º F for about 1 hour = 100% kill > 130º F = immediate kill > 130º F = immediate kill Foot valve must be open to allow flow of hot water Foot valve must be open to allow flow of hot water Cold lake water is heat sink - need enough hot water to fill pipe and keep hot long enough for kill Cold lake water is heat sink - need enough hot water to fill pipe and keep hot long enough for kill

61 Chemical Treatment Never pour or backwash chemicals down intakes Never pour or backwash chemicals down intakes Environmentally harmful effects on fish, zooplankton, and bottom-dwelling invertebrates Environmentally harmful effects on fish, zooplankton, and bottom-dwelling invertebrates Might be harmful to human health Might be harmful to human health Could be illegal if discharged into surface waters Could be illegal if discharged into surface waters Not effective in killing zebra mussels due to short contact time afforded in a residential intake pipe Not effective in killing zebra mussels due to short contact time afforded in a residential intake pipe No environmentally sound chemical treatment system for offshore part of residential water intakes No environmentally sound chemical treatment system for offshore part of residential water intakes 61

62 Deeper Intakes Water too cold Water too cold Insufficient food supply Insufficient food supply Zebra mussels survive near-freezing Great Lakes winters with little damage below ice scour zone Zebra mussels survive near-freezing Great Lakes winters with little damage below ice scour zone Veligers found down to about 200+ feet Veligers found down to about 200+ feet Cost of very deep intakes prohibitively expensive Cost of very deep intakes prohibitively expensive If waters below thermocline become oxygen depleted, sub-thermocline intakes could minimize colonization If waters below thermocline become oxygen depleted, sub-thermocline intakes could minimize colonization Deep water intake might minimize colonization Deep water intake might minimize colonization 62

63 Multi-Residence Systems Cost per residence could be lower than for single residence systems Cost per residence could be lower than for single residence systems Multi-residence systems help eliminate proliferation of smaller, less efficient individual systems Multi-residence systems help eliminate proliferation of smaller, less efficient individual systems Might be more environmentally sound Might be more environmentally sound Most control alternatives can be scaled up to meet needs of multiple residences 63

64 64

65 Written and Produced By Charles R. ONeill, Jr. New York Sea Grant 2001


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