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How fast is that? 299 792 458 m / s or 3.00*10 8 m/s Around the Earth 8 times in one second 1.5 seconds to the Moon 4 minutes to Mars 8 minutes to the Sun 30 minutes to Jupiter 4.24 years to the NEAREST star

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Light Year One light-year (ly) is the distance that light travels in a year 9.46 × 10 15 meters About 6 trillion miles

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Yes, that’s FAST! Solar System Travel Time to SpeedTime to Jupiter α Cen Freeway Speed75 mph600 yrs38 million yrs Jetliner Speed500 mph90 yrs6 million yrs Concorde Speed (Mach 2) 1350 mph33 yrs2 million yrs Spacecraft Speed (Voyager) 40,000 mph1.5 yrs70,000 * yrs

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Way Big Our Milky Way Galaxy is only 100 000 light years across or about 600 000 000 000 000 000 miles or 6 x 10 17 miles or 9.5 x 10 17 km or 9.5 x 10 20 meters or 950 000 000 000 000 000 000 meters

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What is light? Light is an electromagnetic wave Oscillating electric and magnetic fields Oscillations are in phase In phase--When Electric field is increasing, Magnetic field is increasing. When E field is decreasing, Magnetic field is decreasing

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More on EM wave Electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other and the direction of travel Transverse wave

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You might have heard… …that light acts as both particle and wave It does, but for most of this class, light is a wave.

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White Light White light is made of a range of frequencies or colors Can be separated into six elementary colors of the visible spectrum Spectrum—The distribution of wavelengths and frequencies

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Visible light Visible Spectrum—Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, and Violet. Indigo was demoted :<( Roy G. Bv

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EM Spectrum

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Speed of EM waves All EM waves travel at 3.00*10 8 m/s Energy of EM waves depends on frequency. Gamma rays=HIGH energy, radio waves=low energy Speed of the wave depends only on the medium - constant in a constant medium Water 75% Glass 67% Diamond 41% Nothing can travel faster than light in a vacuum

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Measuring speed of light Galileo was one of the first to try Tried to determine time it took light to travel 1.5 km. Would he be able to measure the speed? Now, error is less than.0001%

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Wave Speed Equation: c=f λ Speed of light=frequency x wavelength

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Example Red light has a wavelength of 750nm. What is the frequency? c=3.00*10 8 m/s First, 750nm = 750*10 -9 m = 7.5*10 -7 m Plug into c=f λ (3.00*10 8 m/s) / (7.5*10 -7 m) = f f=4.0*10 14 Hz

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