Presentation on theme: "Electric Vehicles What “State” is this “Art” Rich Carroll Past President, Fox Valley Electric Auto Assoc Member, Chicago Electric Vehicle Consortium."— Presentation transcript:
Electric Vehicles What “State” is this “Art” Rich Carroll Past President, Fox Valley Electric Auto Assoc Member, Chicago Electric Vehicle Consortium
Objectives EV's are coming here List by vehicle types One slide history of EV's EV Chargers (EVSE) are coming here Understand levels of charging Incentives Lethality Safety Emergency Response Guides
Electric Vehicles are Coming Here More than a dozen manufacturers have or will introduce one or more models in the next 12 months Incentivization Vehicle Tax Credits (Federal) Vehicle Cash Rebates (State) Charger Install Rebates Village Stickers Preferred Parking Lower cost / mile 'Greener'
Electric Vehicles are Coming Tesla ®,Roadster and Model S Nissan Leaf ® Chevrolet Volt ® Chevrolet Spark ® Mitsubishi i-MiEV ® Ford Focus Electric ® Ford Transit Connect ® Honda Fit EV ® Think ® Mini E ® Smart fortwo ED ® Toyota RAV4 EV ® Toyota Prius V ® (PHEV) MM NmG ® Fiat 500e ® Citroen C-Zero ® and C1 evie ® * Peugeot iOn ® * Renault Zoe ® and Fluence ® * * Europe only for now
Vehicle Type Abbreviations/Acronyms BEV = Battery Powered (only) Electric Vehicle EREV = Extended Range (by combusion eng.) EV HEV = Hybrid Electric Vehicle (electric+combustion engine) LSV = Low Speed Vehicle (regardless of power) NEV = Neighborhood Electric Vehicle PHEV = Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle ZEV = Zero Emission Vehicle
Short History of Electric Vehicles ERAExample Battery Chemistry LimitationsAdvantages (were the best selling propulsion system in the USA in 1899, 1900) Nickel Iron Nickel oxide-hydroxide athode and an iron anode, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. Range <60 Slow Dependable in undependable era. Easy to start. Electricity easier to find than gasoline. Batteries last > 100 yr Lead Acid When charged, cell contains neg. plates of elem. lead (Pb) and pos, plates of lead oxide (PbO2) in an electrolyte of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Range usually <40 with rare exceptions. Effective battery life 2- 5 yr. Low cost per mile, about 2-3 ¢ Ni MH positive electrodes of nickel oxyhydroxide, negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy. Alkaline electrolyte, usually KOH Cannot license NiMH for sole car power, can license as hybrid, Range < 100 High self discharge rate Need little maint. Little cell to cell regulation Current Lithium Carbon is neg. electrode, metal oxide is pos. electrode. Electrolyte is Lithium Salt in organic solvent. Range usually <100 (Tesla is exception) Quiet, low cost per mile, decreased range anxiety
Pros of EVs Cost to run about 2-3 ¢/ mile (Gasoline ¢/ mile) Most of energy comes from North American Sources Decline in production of greenhouse gasses (most sources say 50% or less of CO 2 emissions) Renewable resources increasing in %age. ComEd 10% by 2015, 25% by Pollution at source of electricity, monitored 24/7 Quiet Power companies maintain their grid is ready for normal influx of EV's Smart Grid and Smart chargers add to reliance, not burden Potential recyclability
Cons of EV's “Tethered” to electric outlet EV's cost more to build Perhaps not as 'green' as one would think Battery technology isn't fully developed Fewer independent mechanics (AST has alternative fuels course) If needed, multiple chargers are expensive Infrastructure not completely in place State revenue plan (road use/ fuel taxes) not in place First responders are 'getting training'
Vehicle Identification Emblems - May say “hybrid” or “electric power” Lettering License Plates In Illinois, (pure EV's are eligible for EL series of plates at a reduced rate.) Characters 5,6 and 7 of VIN could be used, but no consensus yet.
Electric Vehicles – Drive Motor(s) AC motors More expensive ?? more efficient Easy to get regenerative braking DC motors Slightly cheaper to build Easier to rebuild Both types of motors use a battery pack, usually 72 volts to 350 volts. (Even though the motor is an AC motor, the battery pack is DC)
Vehicles Classed by Drive Power Electric Motor Propulsion Tesla ®, Mitsubishi i ®, Nissan Leaf ® Electric Motor Propulsion with aux. onboard source of electricity (Aux. Power can be fuel cell, gas motor, diesel motor) Chevrolet Volt ® Electric Motor Propulsion with Gasoline/Diesel (switching) (Hybrid) New Prius V ® (a.k.a. PHEV) Gasoline/Diesel Power with electric assist. Small electric motor helps acceleration (but never runs by itself) (eAssist ® by GM ®, Prius ®, most hybrids.)
Illinois Low Speed Vehicle Restrictions Vehicle must be capable of not more than 25 MPH Vehicle must be capable of at least 20 MPH Must have title and license plates Most, but not all, are electric Can only be driven on streets with 30 MPH speed limit or less May only cross streets with 45 MPH limit or less. May be further regulated locally Operator must have driver's license. Public Act
EV Charging Stations are Coming Here 273 Public Charging stations by 6/30/12 (CEVC) Stage II & III 37 Ultra Fast charge, Direct DC stations by 6/30/12 (permitting pending) Chicago and six collar counties This is from Green Cities Grant (14.99M)
EV Charging Stations in Chicago Metro Area 263 stations on ChargePoint https://na.chargepoint.com/charge_point 140 stations on Carstations 17 stations from Blink Hundreds of private or semi-private at employers, apartment/condo buildings, garages, car dealers Best online resourse now is plugshare.com
EV Charging, by Levels AC Voltage Input Current (Amps) Input Power (kW) Outlet Level 1 120V<= 16<= 2 NEMA 5-15R Level 2 208/ 240V <= 80 (some cases, 70, 30) <= 20J1772 Level 3 480V CHAdeMO
Other EV Charging (Not CEVC) Private Personal Businesses that do not want 24/7 availability Employers who want to offer free or discount charging Businesses that need to valet cars Car dealers who put the charging equipment behind a lock Purchasers who do not want the higher charging passed on to their clients
In¢entive$ Federal Tax Credit of up to $7,500 for purchase of new EV. (obviously applies only if you can use a tax credit)(amount of credit may vary with size of battery pack) Illinois Rebate of $4,000 for purchase of new EV, or conversion of gasoline vehicle to EV. Rebate sent as state check. (does not apply to gas powered hybrids, even if plug in) Illinois Rebate of $3,000 or $3,500 for purchasing outside charging equipment. Rebate sent as state check. Illinois Vehicle Registration $17.50/year (2 year plate) vs. $99/year normal passenger car/B truck registration Other states vary widely.
Electricity can be 117V AC gives electric shock, seldom lethal, causes muscles to contract/extend 60 times a second 240V AC can be lethal. Causes muscles to contract/extend. Increase in fatalities if current passes through body, stops heart (or causes arrhythmia) AC - Above 0.03 Amps (30 milliamps) can be fatal (lungs) AC – Above 0.1 Amps (100 milliamps) → Card. V. Fib. 120V DC can be lethal. (Anything over 50V DC can be lethal) Even very small ampere rates: Muscles contract and hold. AC current has no + terminal, no – terminal DC current always has terminals + and –, including lightning
EV and Hybrid Safety Press has reported two fires in Volt cars One car was not a source of fire, but in a garage that burned, possibly due to the charging of two EV's at the same time on limited wiring
EV and Hybrid Safety One was at a vehicle 'test track' run by MGA Research in Burlington, WI. (old AMC test area) Vehicle was rammed from side in crash test, removed to storage yard Caught fire after 5-1/2 weeks Volt never deenergized, per testing specifications.
No Other Fires Have Been Noted Batteries do stay charged for many months A De-energization procedure exists for vehicles in serious crashes Battery and component warranty is 8 years, 100,000 miles Nissan Leaf, and Mitsubishi-i offer the same 8 yr/ 100K warranty
Safety in a Crash - Emergency Response Guides Available from each major manufacturer Wide variation in quality of information No central production, each manufacturer does their own Central repository (?) Not a optimized for speed of information, not always the most current.
How to use ERG's Available from each major manufacturer All are available as PDF files (with.pdf extension) Readable on almost all computers Readers available for iPhone ®, Android ® devices Keeping files updated is critical. Each first responder must have latest files available In SOME areas, these can be downloaded in the field.
There are variations between ERGs Some manufacturers have specific suggestions A good level of understanding of these will increase your safety Consider each situation is different, but try to find more universal solutions, and understand why some solutions were offered.
There are variations between ERGs
BMW Diagram of High Voltage Cable
Ford (Escape and Mariner) Cable
Think it's coming? No, it's here Senior editor Joe Wiesenfelder, of Cars.com, brought a Volt to Chicago in 2011 Wiring chewed through by city rat in February 2011 (cost $750) Staff member has minor crash in May 2011 Repair = $14,187
Take away lessons EV's are here Charging stations will be common Both EV's and chargers are quite safe,... but Everyone needs additional information, not just those making purchase decisions Do not expect EV's to only be sold to those with garages, or with sufficient electrical service Expect EV customers to charge at the mall, at the cinema, in a Tollway Oasis, at a business or college While the high DC voltage can pose a safety hazard, it isn't an order of magnitude beyond a tank of gasoline On the whole, EV's are safer than gasoline vehicles.