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RPTB Overview - Objectives To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss hoaxes. To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss.

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Presentation on theme: "RPTB Overview - Objectives To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss hoaxes. To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss."— Presentation transcript:

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2 RPTB Overview - Objectives To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss hoaxes. To provide a framework to identify credible incidents/dismiss hoaxes. To serve as a Planning Tool that can be adapted to a specific user’s needs To serve as a Planning Tool that can be adapted to a specific user’s needs To provide guidance from the time of discovery through remediation and return to normal operation To provide guidance from the time of discovery through remediation and return to normal operation

3 RPTB Overview - Response Guidance Offers guidance on… Whom to notify Whom to notify Actions to take Actions to take How to conduct a ‘Threat Evaluation’ How to conduct a ‘Threat Evaluation’ How to collect samples How to collect samples How to analyze samples How to analyze samples How to remediate and recover How to remediate and recover

4 RPTB Overview - Organization Six modules: 1. Water Utility Planning Guide 2. Contamination Threat Management Guide 3. Site Characterization & Sampling Guide 4. Analytical Guide 5. Public Health Response Guide 6. Remediation and Recovery Guide Module ‘0’ provides an Overview Module ‘0’ provides an Overview

5 Module Relationships

6 Potential Users Drinking water utilities Drinking water utilities Laboratories Laboratories Emergency responders Emergency responders State drinking water programs State drinking water programs Technical assistance providers Technical assistance providers Public health officials Public health officials EPA and other federal agencies EPA and other federal agencies Law enforcement Law enforcement

7 Application of Modules

8 Module 1: Water Utility Planning Guide Planning

9 Module 1: Water Utility Planning Guide Overview of contamination threats and incidents: Overview of contamination threats and incidents: Threat warning sources Threat warning sources Due Diligence – threat response Due Diligence – threat response Preparing for contamination threats: Preparing for contamination threats: Updating ERPs Updating ERPs Establish ICS Establish ICS Develop communication plan Develop communication plan Enhance physical security Enhance physical security

10 THREAT WARNING Security Breach Witness Account Notification by Perpetrator Notification by Law Enforcement Consumer Complaint Public Health Notification Warnings of Potential Contamination Notification by News Media Unusual Water Quality

11 Contamination Threat vs. Incident Contamination threat – an indication that a contaminant may have been introduced (not confirmed). Contamination threat – an indication that a contaminant may have been introduced (not confirmed). Contamination incident - the confirmed presence of a harmful substance (requires a response) Contamination incident - the confirmed presence of a harmful substance (requires a response)

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13 Module 2: Contamination Threat Management Guide

14 Module 2 provides: A framework for decision-making A framework for decision-making A threat evaluation and management process A threat evaluation and management process Descriptions of response actions Descriptions of response actions

15 Threat Evaluation and Management Process Evaluation of all available information to determine if contamination is: Evaluation of all available information to determine if contamination is: ‘Possible’ ‘Possible’ ‘Credible’ ‘Credible’ ‘Confirmed’ ‘Confirmed’ Work with minimal information Work with minimal information Iterative process that is updated as more information becomes available Iterative process that is updated as more information becomes available

16 Players in the Threat Management Process Drinking water utilities (WUERM) Drinking water utilities (WUERM) Drinking water primacy agency Drinking water primacy agency Public health officials Public health officials Emergency responders Emergency responders Local law enforcement Local law enforcement FBI FBI

17 Is the Threat ‘Possible’? A threat is deemed ‘possible’ if the circumstances indicate the opportunity for contamination A threat is deemed ‘possible’ if the circumstances indicate the opportunity for contamination One-hour target for ‘possible’ stage One-hour target for ‘possible’ stage

18 Is the Threat ‘Possible’? Information available at ‘possible’ stage: Information available at ‘possible’ stage: Details of the threat warning Details of the threat warning If a threat is ‘possible’, potential response actions include: If a threat is ‘possible’, potential response actions include: Isolation and containment Isolation and containment Initiate site characterization and sampling Initiate site characterization and sampling

19 Is the Threat ‘Credible’? A threat is deemed ‘credible’ if additional information corroborates the threat A threat is deemed ‘credible’ if additional information corroborates the threat hour target for ‘credible’ stage hour target for ‘credible’ stage.

20 Is the Threat ‘Credible’? Information available at ‘credible’ stage: Information available at ‘credible’ stage: Site characterization results. Site characterization results. Information from external resources Information from external resources If a threat is ‘credible’, potential response actions include: If a threat is ‘credible’, potential response actions include: Public notification Public notification Sample analysis & more site characterization Sample analysis & more site characterization

21 Is the Threat ‘Confirmed’? A contamination incident is confirmed once conclusive evidence is obtained A contamination incident is confirmed once conclusive evidence is obtained May take several days to confirm May take several days to confirm

22 Confirmation of a threat through: Results of Sample Analysis: Results of Sample Analysis: Advantage: provides definitive evidence Advantage: provides definitive evidence Disadvantage: may ‘miss’ contaminant during sampling or design of analytical approach Disadvantage: may ‘miss’ contaminant during sampling or design of analytical approach Preponderance of Evidence: Preponderance of Evidence: Results of site characterization Results of site characterization Assessment by law enforcement Assessment by law enforcement Assessment by public health agencies Assessment by public health agencies Additional factors and information Additional factors and information

23 Is the Threat ‘Confirmed’? Information available at ‘confirmed’ stage: Information available at ‘confirmed’ stage: Results of sample analyses Results of sample analyses Additional site characterization Additional site characterization Information from external resources Information from external resources If a threat is ‘confirmed’, potential response actions include: If a threat is ‘confirmed’, potential response actions include: Revising of actions taken to protect public Revising of actions taken to protect public Planning for remediation and recovery Planning for remediation and recovery

24 Threat Management Process

25 Module 3: Site Characterization and Sampling Guide

26 Intended for water utility staff and first responders Intended for water utility staff and first responders Contains procedures for conducting site characterization activities Contains procedures for conducting site characterization activities Implemented at ‘possible’ stage to establish ‘credible’ and ‘confirmed’ threat Implemented at ‘possible’ stage to establish ‘credible’ and ‘confirmed’ threat

27 Site Characterization Procedures Planning by the WUERM and/or Incident Commander Planning by the WUERM and/or Incident Commander Implementation by the Site Characterization Team Implementation by the Site Characterization Team Site Evaluation Site Evaluation Field safety screening Field safety screening Rapid field testing of the water Rapid field testing of the water Sample collection Sample collection

28 Site Characterization Process Five Stages Customizing the Plan Customizing the Plan Approaching the Site Approaching the Site Characterizing the Site Characterizing the Site Collecting Samples Collecting Samples Exiting the Site Exiting the Site

29 1. Customizing the Plan Site Characterization Plan customized based on nature of threat (4 hazard categories) Site Characterization Plan customized based on nature of threat (4 hazard categories) low, radiological, chemical, and/or biological low, radiological, chemical, and/or biological Site characterization team assembled based on type of threat and safety needs Site characterization team assembled based on type of threat and safety needs

30 2. Approaching the Site Establishing site zones: Establishing site zones: Site perimeter and staging area Site perimeter and staging area Protective action zone where specialized PPE may be required Protective action zone where specialized PPE may be required Conduct field safety screening: Conduct field safety screening: Detect environmental hazards (air & surfaces). Detect environmental hazards (air & surfaces). Initial evaluation of site conditions Initial evaluation of site conditions Determine if it is safe to proceed Determine if it is safe to proceed

31 3. Characterizing the Site Repeat field safety screening Repeat field safety screening Evaluate site conditions: Evaluate site conditions: Signs of intrusion or tampering Signs of intrusion or tampering General signs of contamination General signs of contamination Indicators of chemical contamination Indicators of chemical contamination Rapid field testing of the water: Rapid field testing of the water: Additional information for the threat assessment Additional information for the threat assessment Tentative identification of contaminants Tentative identification of contaminants Determine if special precautions are required for sampling Determine if special precautions are required for sampling

32 3. Characterizing the Site – cont’d. Currently Available Rapid Analytical Assessment Tools: Currently Available Rapid Analytical Assessment Tools: Acute Toxicity Testing Acute Toxicity Testing Rapid Immunoassays Rapid Immunoassays Rapid Enzyme Test Rapid Enzyme Test Rapid PCR Rapid PCR Field Deployable GC/MS Field Deployable GC/MS

33 3. Characterizing the Site – cont’d. Rapid Analytical Methods Technology is rapidly improving Technology is rapidly improving Results are only presumptive Results are only presumptive These methods are no substitute for standard laboratory analyses These methods are no substitute for standard laboratory analyses

34 4. Sample Collection To follow rapid field testing To follow rapid field testing Samples to be collected and analyzed in accordance with State Primacy Agency/EPA/USGS guidelines Samples to be collected and analyzed in accordance with State Primacy Agency/EPA/USGS guidelines

35 5. Exiting the Site Initiated upon completion of site characterization Initiated upon completion of site characterization Confirm collection of appropriate samples Confirm collection of appropriate samples Properly document findings Properly document findings Secure the site Secure the site Securing a site may involve multiple steps for higher hazard level sites and/or crime scenes Securing a site may involve multiple steps for higher hazard level sites and/or crime scenes

36 Module 4: Analytical Guide

37 Intended for planners and labs that may provide support to the water utility during an event Intended for planners and labs that may provide support to the water utility during an event Provides a general approach to the analysis of unknowns in water Provides a general approach to the analysis of unknowns in water Identifies analytical procedures for: Identifies analytical procedures for: Chemicals Chemicals Radionuclides Radionuclides Pathogens Pathogens Not intended as a ‘how to’ lab manual Not intended as a ‘how to’ lab manual

38 Analytical Approach for Unknown Contaminants

39 Current Laboratory Infrastructure

40 Environmental Chemistry Labs Labs suited to complete analyses for compliance with the Safe Drinking Water or Clean Water Acts Labs suited to complete analyses for compliance with the Safe Drinking Water or Clean Water Acts May require advance notice for analysis May require advance notice for analysis

41 Radiochemistry Labs For analysis of a range of radionuclides For analysis of a range of radionuclides Include EPA, DOE, State and some commercial labs Include EPA, DOE, State and some commercial labshttp://www.epa.gov/radiation/programs.htm-er Federal Radiological Management Center (FRMAC) operated by FEMA Federal Radiological Management Center (FRMAC) operated by FEMAhttp://www.fema.gov/rrr/rep/index.shtm

42 Biotoxin Labs Currently few labs with this capability Currently few labs with this capability Labs with this capability are listed in the Laboratory Response Network (LRN) Labs with this capability are listed in the Laboratory Response Network (LRN)http://www.bt.cdc.gov/emcontact/index.asp

43 Chemical Weapons Labs Chemicals placed on Chemical Weapons Convention (CSC) Schedule 1 Chemicals placed on Chemical Weapons Convention (CSC) Schedule 1 Two labs in US qualified and permitted Two labs in US qualified and permitted US Army Edgewood Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories Access through Federal Agencies Access through Federal Agencies

44 Microbiological Labs For analysis of waterborne pathogens For analysis of waterborne pathogens May include hospital, medical, public health and/or environmental microbiology labs May include hospital, medical, public health and/or environmental microbiology labs Labs with this capability listed in Laboratory Response Network (LRN) Labs with this capability listed in Laboratory Response Network (LRN)http://www.bt.cdc.gov/emcontact/index.asp

45 Laboratory Response Network (LRN) Developed by CDC, Association of Public Health Labs and FBI Developed by CDC, Association of Public Health Labs and FBI Designated to handle bioterrorism events Designated to handle bioterrorism events Pathogens Pathogens Biotoxins Biotoxins Composed of City, County, State and Federal Public Health labs Composed of City, County, State and Federal Public Health labshttp://www.bt.cdc.gov/emcontact/index.asp

46 Screening for Chemical Contaminants

47 Module 5: Public Health Response Guide

48 Five Public Health Response Actions: Plan the public health response Plan the public health response Determine public health consequences Determine public health consequences Implement appropriate operational responses Implement appropriate operational responses Implement the public notification strategy Implement the public notification strategy Make available a short term alternate water supply (if necessary) Make available a short term alternate water supply (if necessary)

49 1. Plan the public health response Pre-Threat Planning: Integrate Health Dept into Utility ERP Integrate Health Dept into Utility ERP Identify agencies involved and roles Identify agencies involved and roles Develop communication strategy Develop communication strategy Develop operational/health response plans Develop operational/health response plans

50 2. Determine Public Health Consequences from Incident Post-Threat (contaminant identified) Assess acute/chronic health effects Assess acute/chronic health effects Determine exposure routes of concern Determine exposure routes of concern Determine stability of contaminant in water Determine stability of contaminant in water Calculate ability to spread in distribution system Calculate ability to spread in distribution system

51 3. Implement Appropriate Operational Responses Isolation and containment of suspect water Isolation and containment of suspect water Elevation of disinfection levels Elevation of disinfection levels

52 4. Public Notification Guidance Content: Content: Specific instructions to consumers Specific instructions to consumers Explanation of situation Explanation of situation What is being done to address it What is being done to address it Format: Format: Short and simple Short and simple In all common languages In all common languages Methods of delivery: Methods of delivery: Broadcast media Broadcast media Distribution through community centers Distribution through community centers

53 5. Short-Term Alternate Water Supply Water for consumption and sanitation: Water for consumption and sanitation: Bottled water Bottled water Bulk water hauled to distribution center Bulk water hauled to distribution center Water for firefighting: Water for firefighting: Pumper trucks filled from neighboring supply Pumper trucks filled from neighboring supply Contaminated water if no other immediately available alternative Contaminated water if no other immediately available alternative

54 Module 6: Remediation and Recovery Guide Recovery Plan

55 Module 6: Remediation and Recovery Guide Intended for entities involved in characterization, risk assessment and remediation Intended for entities involved in characterization, risk assessment and remediation Designed to address incidents that pose immediate and/or long term risks Designed to address incidents that pose immediate and/or long term risks Overall objective – return water system to service ASAP Overall objective – return water system to service ASAP

56 Roles and Responsibilities Recovery is coordinated under the Incident Command System Recovery is coordinated under the Incident Command System ‘No single agency (government or private sector) possesses the authority and expertise to unilaterally implement the remediation and recovery program.’ ‘No single agency (government or private sector) possesses the authority and expertise to unilaterally implement the remediation and recovery program.’

57 Steps to Remediation and Recovery Long term alt. water supply Long term alt. water supply System Characterization / Feasibility study System Characterization / Feasibility study Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Detailed analysis of alternatives Detailed analysis of alternatives Remediation technology selection Remediation technology selection Remedial Design Remedial Action Post Remediation Monitoring Communication to restore public confidence

58 1. Long Term Alternate Water Supply Need depends on nature and severity of contamination Need depends on nature and severity of contamination State and Federal assistance is likely to be required State and Federal assistance is likely to be required EPA, FEMA, Army Corps of Engineers EPA, FEMA, Army Corps of Engineers

59 2. System Characterization / Feasibility Study Detailed assessment of nature and extent of contamination Detailed assessment of nature and extent of contamination Preliminary feasibility study of treatment options Preliminary feasibility study of treatment options

60 3. Risk Assessment Evaluate risk reduction achieved in immediate response actions Evaluate risk reduction achieved in immediate response actions Establish preliminary remediation goals Establish preliminary remediation goals Assess potential risk reduction from long-term remedial actions Assess potential risk reduction from long-term remedial actions

61 4. Detailed Analysis of Remedial Alternatives Evaluation based on: Evaluation based on: effectiveness effectiveness technical feasibility technical feasibility treatability of contaminant treatability of contaminant

62 5. Remediation Technology Selection Advantages/Disadvantages based on: Protection of human health and the environment Protection of human health and the environment Compliance with applicable regulations Compliance with applicable regulations Implementability Implementability Cost Cost

63 6. Remedial Design Lead agency (assisted by utility, etc.) responsible for design Lead agency (assisted by utility, etc.) responsible for design Includes preparation of: Includes preparation of: Specifications Specifications Documentation Documentation Detailed Drawings Detailed Drawings

64 7. Remedial Action Implementation of Remedial Design Implementation of Remedial Design Treatment system construction, operation and maintenance Treatment system construction, operation and maintenance Treatment of contaminated water AND rehabilitation of system components Treatment of contaminated water AND rehabilitation of system components

65 8. Post Remediation Monitoring Post-treatment Start-up monitoring: Monitoring for contaminants of concern Monitoring for contaminants of concern Regular system performance inspections and maintenance Regular system performance inspections and maintenance Regular water distribution system inspection and maintenance Regular water distribution system inspection and maintenance Maintenance of security measures Maintenance of security measures

66 9. Communication to Restore Public Confidence Public Outreach Public Outreach Workshops Workshops Meetings Meetings Presentations Presentations Information Repository Information Repository Revised Public Notifications Revised Public Notifications

67 Summary The threat of contamination is a reality faced by drinking water systems The threat of contamination is a reality faced by drinking water systems All threats should be evaluated to determine if they are “possible” or “credible” All threats should be evaluated to determine if they are “possible” or “credible” Effective management of a contamination threat relies on: Effective management of a contamination threat relies on: Timely and relevant information Timely and relevant information A systematic evaluation of the threat A systematic evaluation of the threat Appropriate response decisions Appropriate response decisions

68 Summary (cont’d.) Planning for an effective response to a contamination threat or incident may be the most efficient and effective defense Planning for an effective response to a contamination threat or incident may be the most efficient and effective defensehttp://www.epa.gov/watersecurity EPA RPTB download: y/home.cfm?program_id=8 y/home.cfm?program_id=8


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