Presentation on theme: "Project “Identifying and reducing prejudices as a source of conflict between Roma and non-Roma population – Cases of Bulgaria, Italy, Romania, Slovenia."— Presentation transcript:
Project “Identifying and reducing prejudices as a source of conflict between Roma and non-Roma population – Cases of Bulgaria, Italy, Romania, Slovenia compared” Position of Roma in Romania and in four target localities – Timișoara, Sânpetru Mare, Sântana, Aleșd Centrul Euroregional pentru Democraie Euroregional Center for Democracy
Romanian Principalities (Wallachia and Moldavia) 14 th -19 th C: Slaves Abolition of slavery: 1844 - 1856 Transylvania and Banat 14 th -15 th C: Royal serfs 18 th C: Forced settlement A brief history Wallachia, Moldavia, Dobrogea Transylvania Banat, Crisana, Maramures
For sale A first “sălaş” (family) of Gypsy slaves Through an auction at noon at the St. Elias Monastery on 8 May 1852 It comprises of 18 men, 10 boys, 7 women & 3 girls In fine condition Source: Wikipedia A brief history
14 th century: Roma enter Romania 1918 – 1939: Roma become land owners, a Roma elite emerges 1942 – 1944: deportation to Transdniestria 1947 – 1989: Roma’s cultural identity deliberately ignored, focus on the integration of this segment which led a “parasitic way of life” 1 A brief history 1 Crowe, David. 1996. A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia
3.2% 96.8% 2011 census Council of Europe, Roma and Travelers Division (2008) Roma population in Romania Roma = 8.5% of the total population
Facts Poverty risk Source: The World Bank, The Ministry of Labor, Family and Equal Opportunities, The National Institute of Statistics. November 2007. Romania: Poverty Assessment Report.
Employment Employment rate Source: Soros Foundation (2012).The situation of Roma in Romania, 2011. Between social inclusion and migration.
Employment Roma who perform unskilled work in the informal labor market; Extremely poor Roma who collect waste materials; Roma who perform household duties and other informal occasional activities; Roma who carry out traditional activities; Roma who are employed in the formal labor market; Roma who have their own businesses (e.g. real estate, recycling waste materials, trade etc.) Roma who work abroad. Source: The Research Institute for Quality of Life. 2010. Legal and equal on the labor : market for the Roma communities. Bucharest: Expert. Categories of working Roma
Source: De Laat, Joost, and Christian Bodewig. April 2011. Roma inclusion is smart economics – Illustrations from Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Romania and Serbia. World Bank’s Europe & Central Asia Knowledge Brief 39. 26% of the Roma aged 10 and over are illiterate Education Percentage of Roma with secondary or higher school completion
Healthcare Scarce financial resources Lack of ID papers and health insurance Difficulties in buying prescribed drugs in rural areas Lack of transport means to reach the medical care centers Poor medical infrastructure to which Roma have access given that they usually live on the outskirts Discriminatory behavior and attitudes of the medical staff
Housing Live on the outskirts of cities or villages Less resistant dwellings Limited access to utilities Overcrowded houses Bădescu, Gabriel et al. 2007. Roma Inclusion Barometer. Bucharest: Open Society Foundation.
NoNoUrgent issuesNumber of interviewees 1 Poverty / low income / unemployment8 2 Improper housing6 3 Lack of / poor education6 4 Poor health2 5 Limited access to decent infrastructure (water, electricity, accessible roads etc.) 2 6 Discrimination, prejudices of the non-Roma2 7 Limited access to public services2 8 Marginalization1 9 Lack of identity papers1 10 Lack of affirmative policies for efficient schooling1 11 Jobs correlated with training and qualification programs1 Position of Roma in the target localities
Particularities of the target localities Timioara Discrepancy between the rich and the poor: “palaces” vs. ramshackle cabins Sântana Unpaved roads Poor water supplies Dwellings in an advanced state of decay Contrast between the rich and the poor Aled Electricity Poor hygiene A Roma “palace” in Timisoara Source: Evenimentul zilei, 18 January 2012 Multifunctional Center, Alesd, Bihor County
International monitoring bodies What causes the current condition of Roma? Election campaigns Attention paid by public authorities to Roma issues Poor political representation Public authorities With no local and national political decision makers to plead for long and medium-term programs, and without an appropriate budget, the problems of Roma are passed to the European Commission and vice versa, to the EU member states.
Public policies and projects Programs, national strategies for improving the situation of Roma Limited time frames and external budgets instead of long- or medium- term programs funded from the state budget Funds distributed on the basis of political criteria Lack of financial resources for putting strategies into practice
Subjects Adevărul România liberă Jurnalul naţional Evenimentul zilei Total 1. Crimes committed by the Roma: In Romania (illegal deforestation, policeman killed, aggression against the journalists from TVT89 channel, utilities not paid for 20 years, thefts of metal from railway lines, traveling by train without buying tickets, prostitution, counterfeiting Nokia phones) Abroad (thefts in Ireland, aggressions in Italy, thefts of metal from railway lines in UK, fights between Roma clans in Finland, squatters occupying a house in France) 325515 2. “Gypsy palaces”, police raids, illicit fortunes linked to such palaces, heavily ornamented chapels in cemeteries (especially region) 257-14 3. Begging – beggars in Norway, Ireland, the BBC documentary – The secret lives of 's Child Beggars, Mark Deans’ s comment (FX-MM magazine) on Britain’s hypothetical economic recovery based on Romanian child beggars 135312