Presentation on theme: "Urbanization Brings Environmental Problems for Turkey As with other developing countries, Turkey faces the problem of advancing socially and economically."— Presentation transcript:
Urbanization Brings Environmental Problems for Turkey As with other developing countries, Turkey faces the problem of advancing socially and economically while still protecting its natural resources. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in Turkey have caused several environmental issues, one being air pollution.Air pollution is the biggest environmental issue in 33 cities in Turkey, and is primarily attributed to urban transformation and industrial developments in Turkey’s most populated cities. “Air pollution, which threatens 79 of Turkey’s 81 provinces, is largely caused by fuel usage in homes
Smog at dusk in Istanbul due to traffic
According to the World Development Indicators 2012 report published by the World Bank, which includes data on pollution in cities around the world, “air pollution in Ankara and İ stanbul exceeds the maximum acceptable limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO).” The air pollution consists mostly of sulfur dioxide concentration, a pollution caused by the consumption of coal, diesel fuel and gasoline containing sulfur. Also according to the report, “Turkey’s two largest cities, Istanbul and Ankara, are placed rather high on the list of most polluted cities: Istanbul is ranked seventh and Ankara 26th out of 97 cities.”World Development Indicators 2012 report
Traffic in Turkey’s capital, Ankara, is one factor that contributes to its air pollution problem.
Turkey’s urban growth has strengthened its industrial sector, which in effect has improved its economy. There has been a major influx of European direct investment in Turkey. The country has emerged as an integrated production platform for European manufacturing industries.The economic boom from such investments has contributed to major improvements in “Turkey’s public services and infrastructure, including airports, roads and highways, high-speed railroads, utilities, hospitals, universities, and museums.” While beneficial to the economy, such improvements require more energy consumption, fuel, and expendable land. Expanding the industrialized sector also means more deforestation, air pollution and water pollution in coastal areas.
However, the Turkish government is implementing urban transformation through sudden, top-down decisions that do not sufficiently account for environmental protection or consultations with citizens. In the process, the population’s leanings are largely ignored, making it impossible to nurture civic consensus on the pace and nature of economic development.”
Rapid population and industrial growth has extended to suburbs of Turkey’s largest cities, thus placing more pressure on the government’s sustainable development task. With specific environmental problems in each province, there is no simple solution to eradicate multiple issues.
Power plants are poisoning the environment, lakes are drying up, polluting factories are determined not to build purification plants, and hydroelectric dams are stopping the flow of running water Ğ all these factors contribute to Turkey getting a failing grade when it comes to environmental protection.
Many types of habitats in Turkey have been irreversibly destroyed, especially in the last 30 to 40 years.In the western Black Sea region of northern Anatolia, 79 percent of coastal sand dunes have been destroyed, along with 85 percent of the brushwood;approximately 1.3 million hectares of wetlands are gone. The rate of water available per person has dropped from4,000 cubic meters to 1,430 cubic meters. Turkey is rapidly turning into a water-poor country."
Dams and irrigation projects are threatening important natural areas. Especially near big cities, on the shores of the Aegean and the Mediterranean, unplanned urbanization causes irreversible destruction in many areas."
Turkey’s key issues
The biggest salt lake in Europe has diminished by almost half in 18 years. -
Power plant has been operating without a filter for years, polluting surrounding areas.
The almost 400 hydroelectric plants planned for many provinces, Artvin and Rize foremost among them, means death for the streams they are going to be built on.
River Basins, the primary water source of, has been poisoned.
Lakes are threatened by pollution from waste.
Lakes, the reed beds have lost their ecological and economic functions
The water level of lakes has dropped 10 meters in the last 27 years, and 90 percent of reed bed has dried up.