Presentation on theme: "ATAKENT LİSE KAYIT ÇALIŞMALARI PRIVATE ATAKENT DOGA HIGH SCHOOL COMENIUS PROJECT TURNING THE BLUE PLANET GREEN [2010-1-DE3-COM06-11037-5]"— Presentation transcript:
ATAKENT LİSE KAYIT ÇALIŞMALARI PRIVATE ATAKENT DOGA HIGH SCHOOL COMENIUS PROJECT TURNING THE BLUE PLANET GREEN [2010-1-DE3-COM06-11037-5]
As is the case with all environmental problems, the two primary causes of air pollution in Turkey are urbanizationwhich has been rapid since the 1950sand industrialization. Before industrialization more than 80% of the population lived in rural areas; now more than 60% live in the cities and industrial complexes. Among the developments contributing to air pollution in the cities are incorrect urbanization for the topographical and meteorological conditions, incorrect division of urban land into lots, low quality fuel and improper combustion techniques, a shortage of green areas, an increase in the number of motor vehicles and inadequate disposal of wastes.
In urban areas there has been a decrease in concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulates during the late 1990s. This is largely due to the major changes in the fuel mix used in these areas: domestic coal with high sulphur content has been prohibited for heating and replaced by imported coal with a lower sulphur content (the illegal use of domestic coal for heating is a significant contributor to urban air pollution), and natural gas has been supplied to several cities.
Industry Particulate matter SO2 Power plants 3940 000 1430 000 Iron & Steel 3330 000 – Cement 2270 000 32 000 Sugar 290 000 49 000 Metal 5200 30 000 Fertilizer 14 000 30 000 Table 1: Average yearly levels of SO2 and particulate matter emitted from the main polluting industries (ton/year)
Today gas makes up about 10 percent of Turkeys total energy supply.Industrial exhaust, coupled with emissions attributable to industrial power use, was responsible for almost 40 percent of the total SO2 pollution in Turkey. Motor vehicles are still a significant source of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates, especially in big cities. About 60 percent of the total electricity consumption is generated in thermal power plants, almost half of which burn lignite and hard coal with an average sulphur content between 1.3 and 3.5 percent.12 As a result of rapid economic development, uncontrolled urbanisation and high growth rates in air pollution are still an emerging environmental problem in some cities.
More comprehensive information on air emissions and air quality should be compiled. Enforcement of air quality regulations should be strengthened. The use of economic instruments should be developed to increase the cost effectiveness of air quality management. Energy efficiency studies should be conducted and the use of renewable energies and cleaner fuels should be introduced.
Factors that causes the water pollution in Turkey are; Industrilization Urbanization Rapid population growth Pesticides Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biolagical communities.
The amount of water in Istanbul's dams is always a source of concern for local residents, but a report suggests the quality of the water may be as much of a potential problem as its quantity.
The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a measure of the consumption of renewable natural resources by a human population. A country's EF is the total area of productive land or sea required to produce all the crops, meat, seafood, wood and fibre it consumes, to sustain its energy consumption and to give space for its infrastructure.
Turkey has doubled its ecological footprint since 1970. Footprint of consumption in Turkey is 209.6 million hectares and global ecological footprint is 2.8 global hectares per capita falls. Since 1974 Turkey is among the ecological debtor countries. Since 2006, demand is met through imports although some of the production is taking place faster than the speed of the ecosystem to renew itself. Most of the food industry is taking place in Turkey footprint.
As part of its long bid for European Union membership, Turkey has announced that 74 pesticides are off limits because they are poisonous. The Hürriyet Daily News reports that the EU has a list of 135 illegal chemicals, and Turkey is working on the others. This is part of several environmental moves a foot in Turkey, from ecological building to a new renewable energy initiative. Turkish agricultural officials say that the first 74 chemicals are relatively unimportant, and not often used in Turkish agriculture. Another six will get the axe next year. However, the remaining 55 will be harder to eliminate because they are some of the most crucial pesticides to local farmers.
Although Turkey is not producing PCBs, have been imported to be used in many industrial applications. Although the use of PCBs was banned in 1995 in Turkey, the imports of PCBs is thought to be continued till 2000s.Due to the high rate of insulation capacity of PCBs and because of the overheating and a fire-proof structure, it is especially used in electricity generation / transmission equipment such as transformers and capacitors in the old fluorescent light bulbs, electrical circuits, televisions, radios, washing and drying machines, ovens, microwave ovens, air conditioners, and was found to be used in refrigeration.