2Ladder of Conventional Participation -Running for Political OfficeJoining/Active in Political Parties and Interest GroupsWorking in CampaignsAttending Government MeetingsWriting LettersKnowing elected officialsVOTING - least initiative
3Constitutional Challenges 14th Amendment15th Amendment19th Amendment24th Amendment26th Amendment“White Primary”Covert and Overt TacticsSmith v. Allwright (1944)NRA 1992“Motor Voter” Bill
4Party ConventionsThe United States presidential nominating convention is a political convention held every four years in the United States by the political parties who will be fielding nominees in the upcoming U.S. presidential election.The formal purpose of such a convention is to select the party's nominee for President, as well as to adopt a statement of party principles and goals known as the platform and adopt the rules for the party's activities, including the presidential nominating process for the next election cycle
5RepublicanThere were 2,348 delegates that attended the 2008 Republican National Convention in Minnesota in September. To win the nomination, a candidate must win the votes of at least 1,191 delegates at the convention.
6DemocratsAs for the Democratic Party, there were 4,049 total delegates at its 2008 National Convention in Denver, in August. There are 3,253 pledged delegates and 796 super-delegates. The total number of delegates needed to win the nomination is 2,025.
7What is a Delegate?A delegate is a person who is generally empowered to represent a larger group.To delegate, is to give authority or responsibility to others. In a sense, those who chose a delegate are choosing someone who will represent them and their interests. A delegate is often also called a representative.
8The SuperdelegatesThe reason is because of the super-delgates. Super-delegates are only in the Democratic Party. After a tight battle for the 1980 presidential nomination between Jimmy Carter and Ted Kennedy which left the party deeply divided, the party created these superdelegates. The major Democratic Party leaders felt that the superdelegates would actually be more representative of all Democratic voters if they had more elected officials on the convention floor to offset the more open-minded impulses of party activists. In short, the superdelegates were created to provide leadership and unity at the nominating convention. Well, who are these leaders? They are typically members of the Democratic National Committee, elected officials like senators or governors, or party leaders. And here is the kicker: they do not have to indicate a candidate preference until the Convention!
9ProceedingsParty Activists Hold Meetings Draft a Platform – containing goals and proposals (planks)Speeches - minor and major figures get to address the floorFinal Day of the convention usually features the formal acceptance speeches from the nominees for President and Vice PresidentClosure – balloons, party, music, celebration,
10Voting Rights Act, 1965 (VRA) -Major law enacted by Congress in 1965 and renewed and expanded in 1970,1975, 1982, and 2006 that has sought to eliminate restrictions on voting that have been used to discriminate against blacks and other minority groups.
11VRA “cont” The major provision of the 1965 Act: 1) Suspended the use of literacy and other tests used to discriminate.2) Authorized registration by federal registrars in any state or county where such tests had been used and where less than 50% of eligible voters were registered7 Southern states ( Texas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama ) were mainly affected by these provisions.
12VRA” cont” In 1970: - It extended the Act for 5 more years. - Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18- Prohibited the states from disqualifying voters in presidential elections because of their failure to meet state residency requirements beyond 30 days- provided uniform national rules for absentee registration and voting in presidential elections
13VRA “cont” In 1975: - Extended for another 7 years - Federal protection was extended to 10 new states- Bilingual ballots were required- Legal protection of voting rights was extended to: Spanish-Americans, Alaskan natives, American Indians, and Asian-Americans
14VRA “cont” In 1982: - Extended for 25 years - Authorizes a “bail-out” for covered states showing a “clear record for ten years.”- Provides that “intent” to discriminate need not be “proven” if the results demonstrate otherwiseFlorida, 2000??
15Amended in 2006Congress has amended and extended the Act several times since its original passage, the most recent being the 25-year extension signed by President George W. Bush on July 27, 2006.In Signing This Bill, President Bush Honored The Memory Of Three Women Who Devoted Their Lives To The Struggle For Civil Rights - Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, And Coretta Scott King. The Voting Rights Act Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 2006 was named in honor of these three American heroes.
16Amended in 2006The Voting Rights Act Reauthorization And Amendments Act Of 2006 Extends The VRA For 25 Years, Extending:The prohibition against the use of tests or devices to deny the right to vote in any Federal, State, or local election; andThe requirement for certain States and local governments to provide voting materials in multiple languages.
172006 "cont" The New Law Also Amends The VRA With Regard To: The use of election examiners and observers;Voting qualifications or standards intended to diminish, or with the effect of diminishing, the ability of U.S. citizens on account of race or color to elect preferred candidates; andAward of attorney fees in enforcement proceedings to include expert fees and other reasonable costs of litigation.
18One Legal Remaining Barrier to Voting State Registration Laws- 30 days (Georgia)- Same Day (Minnesota)
19How to VoteCheck in by showing voter registration card or drivers license. In Georgia, you must have an ID with your address showing residency (Governor Purdue, 2005)Early voting/precinctPartisan/non partisan electionOpen primary/closed primary/general electionCast ballot (punch card, bubble, line, electronic, pull lever)Absentee ballot
20Elections and Democracy Democratic controlElections are essential for democratic politics.Elections are the principal means by which popular sovereignty and majority rule are supposed to work.Can elections ensure that governments will do what the people want?
21Political Participation Political participation refers to political activity by individual citizens.Unconventional participation — includes activities such as demonstrations and boycottsConventional participation — includes activities such as voting, writing letters, contacting officials, giving money
22Expansion of the franchise The franchise was quite restricted in the early years of the United States.The expansion of the right to vote has been one of the most important developments in the political history of the United States.Direct partisan elections
23The vanishing electorate Suffrage expanded to more groups during the first century of American history, and larger and larger proportions voted.Voter turnout rate in the U.S. is very low compared with other modern industrialized countries.The ideal of political equality is violated by low rates of voter turnout.
24Barriers to Voting Causes of low voter turnout Registration Lack of attractive choicesChanges in eligibility rulesAlienation and apathy about politics that many Americans felt after the 1960sLack of voter mobilization by political parties and the failure of both parties to register low-income citizens
25Campaigning Involvement Despite low voter turnout levels, Americans are more likely than people in other countries to participate actively in campaigns.Areas of involvementContact officialsGive moneyAttend meetingsAttend political ralliesWork actively in a campaign organization
26Who Participates? Characteristics of voters and nonvoters There is class bias in voting and other forms of political participation.Some statistical analyses indicate that the crucial factor in voter turnout is the level of formal education.Income level may be more important than education in affecting who actually votes.
27Does It Matter Who Votes? Two contrasting points of viewThe rate of participation is unimportant because the preferences of those who vote are similar to those who do not vote.A low voter turnout rate may be a positive factor since more educated people vote.Nonvoters are clearly different from voters.How participation can make a changeBroader participation would increase popular sovereignty and political equality.
28Nomination Politics and Democracy IncumbentsThe autumn campaignThe fall campaign traditionally began on Labor Day, but now tends to start right after the conventions or earlier.Campaign organizations set up in each stateIntense money raising, combined with a new round of public financingMedia blitzFocus groupsVoter registration and voter turnout campaignsInforming voters
29Money and ElectionsPresidential campaigns cost enormous amounts of money.The cost has increased rapidly over time.Campaign spending may not look so big when compared with corporate advertising.The source of campaign money is far more problematic for democracy than the cost of presidential elections.Where does the money come from?Does money talk?
30The McCain-Feingold Act ,Public Law , is the US federal law that regulates the financing of political campaigns; chief sponsors were Senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Russell Feingold (D-WI). The law became effective 6 November 2002.
31Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act It focused on areas: Soft money in campaign financingIssue ads andControversial campaign practices during the 1996 federal electionsIncreasing political contribution limits for private individuals
32Soft MoneySoft money is supposed to be spent for particular purposes, on such things as campaign ads endorsing an entire political party. It can also be used for voter registration drives or “get out and vote” campaigns, yard signs, t-shirts, and stickers for the party. Soft money may also be used for advertisements that discuss specific political issues or the party’s platform. The idea behind soft money is for early “party building” and rallying the base.
33Soft Money "cont"Today, soft money is said to be used for a variety of other expenses as well, including “administrative costs.” These costs may include things like purchasing supplies, paying rent and utilities for general campaign offices, and a host of other mundane expenses. Since it isn’t being used for anything too exciting, like mudslinging campaigns against opposing candidates, the uses of soft money are often overlooked.
34"cont"At one time, nearly unlimited amounts of money were allowed to be donated to political parties through the soft money loophole. While it is said that campaign finance reform legislation no longer leaves the amount unlimited, the soft money loophole still allows wealthy contributors to donate a great deal of money. Many see this as a way for wealthy contributors to buy influence without being held accountable.
35How Voters DecideThe way in which people make their voting decisions affects how elections contribute to democratic control of government.Parties, candidates, and issues all have substantial effects on how people vote.Social characteristics and party loyaltiesCandidatesIssues
36The Electoral CollegeWhen voting for president, American voters are actually voting for a slate of electors who have promised to support the candidate.Almost all states now have winner-take-all systems.For most practical purposes, the electoral college system works in much the same way as if Americans chose their presidents by direct popular vote.Consequences of the electoral college systemWe will study the EC in detail later on in the semester.
37Do Elections Matter?In terms of the responsible party government theory...Republicans tend to be more conservative than Democrats on a number of economic and social issues.This provides voters with a measure of democratic control by enabling them to detect differences and make choices.
38SUMMARYVoters exercise control in the electoral competition theory by either reelecting successful incumbents or defeating unsuccessful officeholders.Elections force parties to compete by nominating centrist candidates and by taking similar popular positions.U.S. elections help make the public’s voice heard, but political equality is damaged by providing more political influence to some types of people than to others.