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53 Things You Need to Know for your Final Exam.

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1 53 Things You Need to Know for your Final Exam

2 1. Where is the food? Before the Neolithic Revolution, humans were forced to travel from place to place in search of food as nomads. The result of the Revolution was a shift from a food gathering to food producing societies where people could survive and stay in one place.

3 2. Can you dig it? Archaeologists excavate ancient settlements and study artifacts (items created by human beings) to learn more about how these ancient people lived. Famous archaeologists include Donald Johannson who discovered a 3 million year old skeleton that he nicknamed “Lucy” who he believed was an upright walking humanlike creature.

4 3. We’ve got Roots According to the latest scientific research, the earliest known human remains have been found in Africa. Therefore, scientists believe that human origins can be traced back to that continent. Based off of the radiocarbon dating process (used to date organic material) humanlike creatures have been on the earth for over 3 million years.

5 4. Down by the River River valleys became the site of the most successful early civilizations because of their mild climate, fertile soil, and plentiful water supply. People there would create calendars so that they would know when the seasons would change to avoid having crops in the ground during rainy seasons.

6 5. Cool It! In the past 1.5 million years that earth had long periods of cooling which lasted for thousands of years and resulted in glaciers covering large portions of the earth’s surface.

7 6. Do it or else! The 1st civilizations found the need to select leaders and create governments to get essential work done by citizens, workers were given specific jobs to accomplish to earn their keep in these communities.

8 7. Prehistoric Developments
Before the Neolithic Revolution, human beings developed spoken language, fire, tamed some animals, buried their dead, stone tools (hand axe), and began to migrate to cooler areas of the planet.

9 8. What a present! Egypt’s annual flooding is referred to commonly as the “gift of the Nile” because each year it provided fertile farmland with a new, rich layer of silt.

10 9. Long Standing Ancient Egypt was surrounded by seas and deserts prevented outside civilizations from attacking them. Therefore, Egypt remained a unified empire for nearly 3,000 years!

11 10. Eye for an Eye King Hammurabi the ancient Mesopotamian king was the first to develop a law code which applied to all citizens of his empire.

12 11. Ideas Exchanged During the earliest periods of world history, many civilizations learned of new ideas through cultural diffusion which occurred after Prehistoric times (Prehistory) when writing was developed, other civilizations were conquered, and trade took place between different civilizations.

13 12. Geography is the Key According to Jared Diamond, civilizations that possessed abundant agricultural items, new forms of technology, and domesticated animals tended to be the most successful ones in the early part of human history.

14 13. Write It Down Some of the first civilizations in the world developed written language about 5,000 years ago. First, the Sumerians invented Cuneiform and a short time later, the Egyptians invented Hieroglyphics.

15 14. God said it! The Ancient Hebrews (Israelites) developed the idea of Ethical Monotheism. It was first written in the Old Testament which outlines Hebrew moral and ethical teachings.

16 15. Can You Dig It? The use of irrigation and domesticated animals allowed farmers in the first civilizations to cultivate crops on a large scale. In Egypt, irrigation canals helped early farmers transform the desert into fertile land for growing grapes.

17 16. Early Trade Before the development of money, early civilizations relied on barter (the exchange of one good or service for another) to receive items or services that they needed to survive.

18 17. Gettin’ Ziggy With It! In Ancient Sumer, Ziggurats were built as religious ritual centers in nearly every city-state throughout the Tigris-Euphrates River Valley a.k.a. “The Fertile Crescent” (see map).

19 18. Everyone had a Voice In Ancient Greek polis (city-state) of Athens, all free, adult, male citizens voted on all issues brought forth in the system of government called a direct democracy. Just as in the U.S. today, individuals played a significant role in shaping ideas, society, and the state.

20 19. No freedom of Choice In Ancient Sparta, male citizens were required to serve and train in the military from ages seven to sixty. This polis was ruled by an oligarchy- a small group of wealthy people.

21 20. In the Nude Ancient Greeks participated in athletic contests every four years as each city-state sent its best athletes to compete for the Greek gods at Mount Olympia. Most artwork of the Golden Age of Greece also glorified the human body in paintings and sculptures.

22 21. Save the Drama There wouldn’t be any drama to be saved if it wasn’t for the Ancient Greeks who developed early plays with humor called comedies and others where characters struggle to overcome an problem called tragedies.

23 22. Alexander’s Impact Through numerous military victories Alexander the Great built new cities with Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences. This culture brought throughout the known world by Alexander became known as Hellenistic Civilization.

24 23. Athenian Legacy In the 5th Century B.C. Athens developed great art/architecture like the Parthenon, Philosophy, Pythagorean theorem, Hippocratic Oath, History, and Rhetoric because of its wealth, and under Pericles’ leadership Athenian democracy flourished as ordinary citizens held public offices .

25 24. Primary and Secondary People who study history look at primary sources (diaries, paintings, sculptures, journals) and secondary sources (textbooks, encyclopedias, and websites) to learn more about historical information. One place with a wealth of primary sources is the Roman city of Pompeii which was destroyed by a volcanic eruption in the 1st century A.D.

26 25. Roman Builders Ancient Romans constructed several marvels of modern engineering including arches, vaulted ceilings, domes, and aqueducts which carried water from the mountains to the cities.

27 26. Mad Men In many Ancient civilizations, including Rome, women and children were not ever involved in governmental decisions. However, Rome did develop the idea of a republican form of government and established a bicameral legislature. The Roman Republic also gave more say in elections to wealthier citizens.

28 27. It Catches On! Around 30 A.D. many people around Jerusalem began to follow a holy man named Jesus, who performed miracles. His followers would create the Christian Church shortly after Jesus’ death. But it would not become legal in Rome until the 200s after Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity. After it became legal it grew in popularity because of its promise of life after death, strong organization led by Popes and use of common languages (Greek/Latin).

29 28. You’re going Down! The Roman Empire began to fall apart around 400 A.D. because of ineffective and corrupt leaders in Rome’s government, inflation in Roman currency, loss of faith and patriotism in Rome, and changes in army membership and discipline.

30 29. Republican Model There are many similarities between the modern U.S. government and Roman Republic including rule by elected representatives. This representative democracy became the model of the U.S. government and allows the desires of the citizens who vote to limit the government’s actions. Citizens who failed to vote would often not see their favored candidate win elections.

31 30. Beasts of the Middle East
The Islamic Empire rapidly expanded after its founding in the 7th century (see map). Arab merchants and caliphs (leaders) helped spread Islamic technology to these areas. Within 2 centuries, this empire was one of the most powerful in the world’s history.

32 31. Byzantine Buzz Located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, the former Roman city of Constantinople became the center of culture for the Byzantine Empire in the 500s A.D. Led by Justinian, Byzantine culture flourished with the building of the Hagia Sophia (on right), his law code, and rapid expansion of his empire. Constantinople would remain under the control of Christian rulers until the Ottoman (Muslim) takeover in 1453.

33 32. Great Until the End In the early 1500s, the Aztecs (J) were led by Montezuma and had a fabulous capital city named Teotihuacan (today’s Mexico City) was built on top of a lake. Also, the Inca (M) were a sophisticated culture with an advanced record keeping system called quipu. By 1525, both civilizations were destroyed by the guns, germs, and steel of the Spanish conquistadors.

34 33. Tell me a Story Ancient African history can be traced back to a class of Africans called griots tell the stories of African legends and religious traditions. The Great Zimbabwe civilization created one of the most unique structures of sub-Saharan Africa it is called the Great Enclosure (on right).

35 34. Cultural Barrier The Sahara Desert in North Africa provided a barrier for the spread of Christianity in ancient times. However, both religious missionaries and profit seeking merchants were able to cross the great desert to arrive in major cities like Timbuktu which was the center of trade and learning in West Africa.

36 35. New Ways of Thinking People of Ancient India developed the concept of the number zero and religions of Buddhism and Hinduism which were later adopted by Ancient Chinese dynasties. Ancient Chinese philosophies called Legalism, Confucianism (order is the way to peace), and Daoism (respect he force and compromise) became the leading ways of thinking in these Asian areas of the world.

37 36. Charlemagne’s Idea In order to establish political control, the Frankish king, Charlemagne, developed called feudalism in which serfs borrowed land from lords on manors exchange for fiefs. On these manors, most of the economic activities were based off of agriculture.

38 37. Follow the Code Medieval knights had to follow a specific code of behavior known as Chivalry to remain in their elite position.

39 38. Huge Impact The Magna Carta established many ideas used in the U.S. government including: credible witnesses, separation of powers, speedy trials, no one is above the law, and personal property rights.

40 39. Mo Money By the Late Middle Ages a vast trade network of trade route connected the centers of trade in Europe which resulted in rapid spread of the Black Death which reduced Europe’s population by 25 million over 4 years which led to a smaller workforce and an increase in wages.

41 40. I’ve got the Power Following the defeat of Islamic armies in 732 A.D. by Charles Martel, Christianity grew in strength and popularity in Western Europe. Within several hundred years, European Christians constructed large Gothic Cathedrals to show their devotion to God.

42 41. Not Just Tough Guys Archaeologists believe that the Vikings were the first Europeans to sail across the Atlantic Ocean around 1000 A.D. and made settlements in modern day Canada.

43 42. Do It for God! The Crusades recruited thousands of Europeans to recapture the holy land from the Muslims by ensuring Crusaders a place in heaven, although they were unsuccessful at recapturing Jerusalem, it did result in increased demand for goods in the Middle East and eventually led to increased cultural exchanges between the Middle East and Europe.

44 43. A Rebirth Beginning in Italy around 1350 scholars began to reintroduce classical text and an emphasis on learning occurred resulting in the start of a period of history called the Renaissance.

45 44. Huge Invention! During the Renaissance, a German printer, Johannes Gutenberg developed a revolutionary new printing method using blocks to quickly and cheaply produce books.

46 45. Great Artists Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo Buonarotti both created some of the most memorable works of art during the Renaissance including the Mona Lisa and David.

47 46. Split in Christianity A German priest, Martin Luther, objected to certain practices in the Catholic Church and started the European Protestant Movement in the 1500s.

48 47. Luther’s Gripe Martin Luther believed that the Catholic Church’s most serious offense was the selling of certificates of indulgences in which people paid the church in exchange for a reduction in punishment for their sins.

49 48. The Rise of Science During the Renaissance, great scientists such as Francis Bacon, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on experimentation and observation.

50 49. Scientific Method Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton used the Scientific Method to solve their problems.

51 50. Germ Killers The population of Native Americans declined dramatically shortly after the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Millions of Native Americans were wiped out by smallpox, which they had no natural immunity to. With a labor shortage, Europeans increased slave trade from Africa and by the 1700s the Middle Passage had transported millions of Africans to the Americas to become slaves.

52 51. Early Exploration With increased technology, Portugal and Spain competed to find quicker trade routes to Asia the early leaders in this trade. In the 1400s, the Portuguese prince, Henry the Navigator opened a school for sailors and helped train and pay explorers which gave his country the early lead in this profitable trade.

53 52. Indians!? Christopher Columbus knew that the world was round, but he underestimated its circumference therefore, when he arrived in the New World he thought that he was off the coast of India, he called the natives there “Indians”.

54 53. Final Exam Breakdown 87 out of 100 questions have appeared on your previous unit tests and quizzes in World History this semester. 100 multiple choice questions (1 point each) Total score will account for 20% of your semester grade.

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