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ASARECA Workshop; August 21, 2013

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1 ASARECA Workshop; August 21, 2013
Tackling the MLN Challenge through R4D – Initiatives by CIMMYT and Partners BM Prasanna Director, Global Maize Program CIMMYT, Nairobi, Kenya

2 Emergence of MLN in eastern Africa
September 2011: Disease first reported in the lower parts of Longisa division of Bomet District of Kenya. February 2012: Noticed in Bomet Central division, spreading into neighboring Chepalungu, Narok North, Narok South and Naivasha Districts of Kenya. April 2012: Disease further spread to Sotik,, Koinon, Transmara, Rumuruti, Kisii, Bureti, Kericho, Mathira East, Imenti South and Embu Districts of Kenya In Tanzania: Lake zone (Mwanza and Musoma), Manyara, Arusha and Moshi

3 Disease Symptoms

4 Disease Symptoms Poor seed set and shrivelled ears
Shortened Internodes Early leaf necrosis

5 Pathogen Diagnosis Collaboration between KARI, CIMMYT and USDA/OSU (Wangai et al. 2012) First report of MCMV in Kenya. MLN is a viral disease caused by combined infection of maize with Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) and any of the Potyviruses infecting cereals (e.g., SCMV, MDMV or WSMV).

6 Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV)
Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV)

7 Global occurrence of MCMV/MLN
Country MCMV / MLN Year Reference Peru MLN 1973 Castillo and Hebertt (1974) USA CLN 1976 Niblett and Cafflin (1976) Argentina 1982 Teyssandier et al. (1982) Mexico MCMV/MLN 1987 Delgadillo and Gaytan (1987) Thailand MCMV 1983 Cited in Uyemoto (1983) Brazil China 2011 Xie et al. (2011) Kenya 2012 Wangai et al. (2012) Tanzania CIMMYT Task Force Report to Ministry of Agriculture, Tanzania Uganda Godfrey Asea’s presentation in MLN Workshop (Nairobi; Feb 12-13, 2013) Rwanda 2013 Claver Ngabiyasonga’s presentation during MLN Training Workshop (Nairobi; July 1, 2013)

8 MLN in a Hybrid Seed Production Field in Tanzania

9 Seed industry under stress in EA
Seed demand has decreased in the MLN-affected region by several thousand tons. Demand has changed; sales have reduced. Lots of carry over seed. Import restrictions Seed treatment with systemic insecticides: Increase in cost of seed Product not available Severe vulnerability of commercial varieties released in Kenya Screening of 119 commercial maize varieties (both hybrids and OPVs) released in Kenya under MLN artificial inoculation trials in Naivasha and Narok in Kenya revealed 117 if these are highly vulnerable to MLN! Source: STAK-KARI trials ( )

10 Why is MLN devastating in EA?
MCMV is new to the region + interaction with SCMV (new strains?) in the region Conducive environment for survival and spread of insect vectors Continuous maize cropping in certain regions – build-up of virus inoculum Widespread cultivation of susceptible germplasm that has never been screened for MCMV

11 MLN Facts and Actions

12 MLN Regional Workshop and Field Day (Feb 12-14, 2013)
70 scientists, seed company breeders/managers, and representatives of Ministries of Agriculture and regulatory authorities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania Training on MLN disease diagnostics MLN field day showed responses of diverse maize germplasm to responses to MLN under high disease pressure KEPHIS representative announced the commitment to fast-track MLN resistant hybrid release.

13 Optimizing artificial inoculation protocols
SCMV amplification MCMV+SCMV amplification Inoculum preparation MCMV amplification Inoculum application using a mounted pressure sprayer in a trial in Narok (MLN Hot Spot) in Kenya Technical support from USDA/OSU and KARI

14 Do we have elite maize germplam resistant to MLN?
Screening of inbred lines developed by CIMMYT, IITA and KARI, as well as CIMMYT pre-release hybrids against MLN during CIMMYT-KARI team evaluated so far ~1000 maize genotypes in MLN trials: 335 elite inbred lines and 366 pre-commercial hybrids under artificial inoculation in Narok (Kenya) 350 elite inbred lines and 135 pre-commercial hybrids under natural disease pressure in Naivasha (Kenya) 10-15% of the evaluated maize germplam revealed resistance or moderate resistance against MLN!

15 Promising CIMMYT inbreds and pre-release hybrids against MLN identified
MLN-resistant line MLN-susceptible line MLN-resistant line MLN-susceptible line MLN-resistant line


17 Several more promising pre-release hybrids under validation trials in Narok this season.
Seed requests for promising inbred lines and hybrids will be attended to in July-August 2013.

18 Ensuring a continuous flow of MLN resistant elite maize germplasm in SSA
Integrating MLN resistance as an integral component of maize breeding strategy and product pipeline, across projects. Establishing a centralized MLN screening facility in KARI- Naivasha (under artificial inoculation) is in progress Opportunity for screening elite germplasm for CIMMYT, KARI as well as other public and private sector partners in eastern Africa. A network of MLN testing sites (under natural disease pressure) in eastern Africa to evaluate promising materials from artificial inoculation trials.

19 CIMMYT‘s ongoing efforts in identifying/ developing MLN resistant maize germplasm
Hybrids currently in NPT in different countries Pre commercial hybrids from different projects Elite SC widely used in ESA Early and medium kits regional trials Elite inbred lines from different CIMMYT projects DTMA and IMAS association mapping panels Selected bi-parental mapping populations Commercial hybrids from different companies Selected landrace accessions from CIMMYT Gene Bank

20 Accelerating MLN resistant germplasm development
Molecular marker-assisted breeding Possible to identify major genomic regions influencing resistance to MLN CIMMYT-KARI team is presently undertaking GWAS and validation using biparental populations to identify molecular markers for MLN resistance Molecular marker-assisted backcrossing for conversion of selected elite but MLN-susceptible inbred lines into resistant versions. MABC, if some major QTL can be found, reduces time required several-fold (2-3 BCs instead of 6-7 BCs).

21 Preliminary QTL for MLN resistance (bi-parental popn)
To be genotyped with GBS R % % & 5.4% % % Source CML CZL03014/CML444 CZL03014 CZL03014 Shaded regions indicate the confidence interval of the QTL

22 MLN disease severity (127,669 SNPs)
Chr Chr Chr Chr Chr5 Chr6 Chr7 Chr8 Chr9 Chr10 Chr Mean R2 1 10.4% 2 11.6% 3 9.9% 4 11.3% 5 9.5% Chr Mean R2 6 10.7% 7 13.5% 8 10.5% 9 12.3% 10 12.9% R2 per significant marker = %

23 Accelerating MLN resistant germplasm development
Using doubled haploid (DH) technology A state-of-the-art maize DH facility is being established by CIMMYT in Kiboko Station; will be ready by Sept 2013. The DH technology, in combination with molecular markers, can help reduce by half the time taken for developing MLN resistant versions of existing elite susceptible lines.

24 Seed Systems Support Information on elite inbreds and pre-release hybrids with resistance (R) or moderate resistance (MR) to MLN under artificial inoculation conditions (besides natural disease pressure) shared with public and private partners in ESA, including Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethopioa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique, Malawi and South Africa. Seed requests received from several partners – seed exchange will take place in July-August, with first priority to institutions in eastern Africa. Some promising hybrids in NPTs and some more in pipeline – emphasis on wider reach through non- exclusivity, till supply is more than the demand.

25 How can we better control MLN? Short-term
Harmonizing maize plantings, and ensuring a maize-free period Promoting good agricultural practices, including crop rotation with non-cereals (e.g., legumes) A massive awareness drive, including farmers and extension agencies -> for effective local quarantine Seed companies/ seed units to ensure that seeds are treated with appropriate seed dressers at the recommended rates. Guidance to farmers on regime of MLN management, including pesticide application in the field + identification, fast-track release delivery of MLN resistant maize varieties

26 MLN Epidemiology: Unanswered Questions
Is MLN in eastern Africa only due to MCMV + SCMV or due to MCMV + any other member of Potyviridae in different countries? What alternate hosts of MLN-causing viruses are prevalent in the region? How best to control them? What are the primary or most active insect-vectors spreading the disease? How frequent is seed transmission of viruses, especially MCMV? When is seed transmission most likely to happen? Nelson et al. 2011

27 Understanding MLN Insect-vector Dynamics
Survey and identification of vectors endemic to eastern Africa that are capable of transmitting MLN-causing viruses, especially MCMV and SCMV Determining patterns of insect-vector movement and MLN disease development under natural conditions. Understanding of the effects of novel seed treatment technologies on the biology of insect-vectors transmitting MLN-causing viruses, and virus transmission competence. A competitive grant call has been announced recently under the MAIZE CRP. Aphids Thrips Leaf hoppers

28 MLN-free Germplasm Exchange
We can possibly exchange seed produced from a MLN- free location (e.g., Kiboko) in a MLN-endemic country (e.g., Kenya) to other MLN-endemic countries in eastern Africa (e.g., Tanzania and Uganda), but NOT to any country where MLN has not been reported so far, including Ethiopia and southern African countries. Seed for international shipment from an MLN-endemic country can only be produced in a MLN-free location, and following due diligence. MLN Quarantine Site to be established very soon in CIMMYT-Zimbabwe. Comprehensive protocols being developed by CIMMYT for rigorous compliance in ESA.

29 Acknowledgement CIMMYT colleagues (Dan Makumbi, Yoseph Beyene, Bish Das, George Mahuku, Dan Jeffers, Mosisa Worku, James Gethi, Kassa Semagn, Mike Olsen, Stephen Mugo, Mike Listman, Florence Sipalla, Wandera Ojanji) KARI colleagues (Dr Mukisira, Anne Wangai and her team) NARS and seed company partners across eastern and southern Africa USDA/OSU (Peg Redinbaugh and her team) Donor agencies: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID and SFSA

30 The pessimist complains about the wind.
The optimist expects it to change. The realist adjusts the sails. - William A. Ward

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