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Enhancing Access and Utilization of Improved Seed for Food Security in Kenya Miltone Ayieko and David Tschirley 18 th May 2006 Correspondence: Tegemeo.

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Presentation on theme: "Enhancing Access and Utilization of Improved Seed for Food Security in Kenya Miltone Ayieko and David Tschirley 18 th May 2006 Correspondence: Tegemeo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enhancing Access and Utilization of Improved Seed for Food Security in Kenya Miltone Ayieko and David Tschirley 18 th May 2006 Correspondence: Tegemeo Institute of agricultural policy and development Kindaruma Lane, Off Ngong Road P.o. Box , Nairobi Phone:

2 The Seed Challenge Overarching Goal of Kenyan Agriculture: Increasing agricultural Productivity for accelerated economic growth The Seed Challenge: Development of a Seed system that encourages wider use of quality seed at all levels to tackle poverty and food security

3 Kenyan Seed Industry Structure The Formal and Informal Systems Formal system Purchases of hybrids and OPVs, most industrial crops, flowers Informal system Seed retained from production or received from other farmer seed systems Purchases of local varieties

4 Sources of Seed and Planting Materials (All Crops)

5 Households tend to use all three sources of seed …

6 Sources of Seed and Planting Materials (All Crops) Households tend to use all three sources of seed … Most frequent source of seed is retained production…

7 Value Share of Seed and Planting Materials Sources (All Crops)

8 Value of seed purchases from formal source exceeds that of informal

9 Value Share of Seed and Planting Materials Sources (All Crops) … same pattern for value of production coming from each channel

10 Value Share of Seed Source by Commodity Group

11 The formal seed source is dominated by maize and industrial crops …

12 Value Share of Seed Source by Commodity Group Non-maize cereals dominated by informal seed sources

13 Value Share of Seed Source by Commodity Group Tubers and vegetables dominated by informal seed

14 Value Share of Seed Source by Agro Regional Zones

15 Formal seed source important for all ARZ … except Eastern lowland

16 Where does the Seed go? (by Value) Over 40% of all seed purchases from formal channels, by value, are for maize in the High Potential Maize Zone Seed from the informal channels is spread over more crops and a broader area

17 Who uses Seed Source?

18 Retained seed is important for all income levels…

19 Who uses Seed Source? Retained seed is important for all income levels… but so is the formal

20 Who uses Seed Source? Retained seed is important for all income levels… but so is the formal Higher income hhs seed value 5-6 times the lower income hhs

21 Summary of Basic Patterns Highly diversified seed sector Nearly all HHs rely on all three types of seed Very high shares of retained seed Low shares of seed purchased in informal sector Except for vegetables and non-tree fruits Formal sector primarily serves higher income HHs … … and is heavily focused on maize in HPMZ

22 Enhancing Access and Utilization of Improved Seed in Kenya: Examples

23 Challenges: Unavailability of clean seed and cases of fake seed Certified seed costs expensive Also marketing problems: Linking farmers to markets Horticultural Crops

24 Horticultural Crops (1): Positive Seed Selection in Irish Potato

25 Horticultural Crops (2): Quality Declared Seed (QDS) Seed produced at village level as Quality Declared Seed (QDS), Does not meet the full requirement of certified seed Advantages: Farmers trained on seed production; Access to clean and high yielding seed; Production costs drastically reduced Rules and regulations developed and entrenched in the Laws, including graduated seed qualities;

26 Horticultural Crops (2): Quality Declared Seed (QDS)

27 Horticultural Crops (3): Contract Farming – Export crops Private sector approach to link farmers to export markets and avail improved inputs and services. Two approaches: Direct delivery of quality seed to farmers Training of farmers to multiply seed and share among groups Key challenge: Side selling risks undermining the approach to input provision Approach only works for certain crops that have limited local market

28 Grains and Pulses Challenges: Most of the crops included in the schedule II crop list Due to lack of availability, many farmers forced to use illegal seed Also many cases of fake certified seed Heavy KEPHIS involvement in the formal Seed System

29 Grains & Pulses (1): Community-Based Seed Prod. Farmer-group based approach to seed multiplication and bulking Collaboration between MoA, research institutions (KARI, CIMMYT), donor community, development agencies Programs revolve around food security: promotion of drought tolerant crops Support includes training, extension, provision of initial seed for multiplication Challenge: Seed source not legally recognized; Most groups do not meet the isolation distances, Groups not licensed as seed merchants

30 Grains & Pulses (2): Seed Vouchers and Fairs (SVF) Objective: to enhance food security and access to seeds of preferred crops, and to ensure seed security. Model challenges the assumption that seed is unavailable in a community during emergency Farmers bring their own seeds to sell to other farmers Seed companies also sell their seed Seed vouchers distributed according to vulnerability Advantages: Cost-effective; Additional source of income for communities Expands the reach of the commercial seed sector

31 Grains & Pulses (3): Integrated Model Based on hypothesis that better access to markets leads to increased adoption of improved technology Components: Cereal Banks, Input Market, Market information, Variety trials Participation in more components leads to higher and better results

32 The Seed Regulatory Framework Seed and Plant variety Act (Cap 326) Seed Policy The current seed regulations only recognize seed from formal source Over-regulation of the seed industry: hinders release of new seed varieties by local breeders Faking of seed Selective application of the Seed Regulations e.g., Committees and Tribunals Schedule II crops

33 Key Policy and Programmatic Challenges How to expand the scope and quality of the informal system? Help farmers do better selection of retained seed Improve quality of seed locally selected for sale Promote more active trade in locally selected seed How to expand access to the formal seed system? How to reduce costs in the formal system Encouraging integrated approaches to technology adoption Fallback position for farmers who buy fake seed

34 Key Policy and Programmatic Challenges Strengthen Private-Public partnerships in Seed Production Seed Regulation and the Role of KEPHIS Amendment of Regulations to provide enabling environment for seed producers. Establishment of Committees and Tribunals provided for in the Act Stakeholder groups (STAK, FPEAK, KFC, KENFAP)

35 Thank You


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