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Human Security – concepts and challenges in Turkey and the western Balkans hCa, Istanbul 19 th February, 2013 Mary Martin.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Security – concepts and challenges in Turkey and the western Balkans hCa, Istanbul 19 th February, 2013 Mary Martin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Security – concepts and challenges in Turkey and the western Balkans hCa, Istanbul 19 th February, 2013 Mary Martin

2 What do we mean by ‘human security’? 2 ways of looking at it 1. WHO? People – humanising security HOW ? Means are as important as goals ; human security as an approach as well as an end state WHAT? The importance of everyday life; interconnected threats; justice – -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. Freedom from Fear, Freedom from Want, and Right to Dignity – Focus on what kind of humans as well as what kind of harms ‘

3 The European Union and HS Barcelona Report + a Human Security Doctrine – which capabilities? Madrid Report – how to deploy capabilities? External relations, but internal dilemmas Post Lisbon Treaty – what role for HS? – In the Neighbourhood – To complement national security and defence – As a domestic policy? Greece, the Balkans?

4 A framework: 5 principles 1.Primacy of human rights – Which rights – positive and negative – how are they threatened? – Who should defend them ? – Rule of law, not rule of war/corruption – Focus on individual need not macro indicators

5 2. Legitimate political authority Aim is credible and trust-worthy institutions – make people feel safe Focus on creating space for life as usual Not necessarily re-creating the state Local and regional governance Accountability External assistance must also be scrutinised

6 3. Bottom-up approach Sustainable – outsiders can only help not deliver Requires local knowledge, representation participation and accountability mechanisms Real empowerment versus token capacity building Increased roles for women Attention to youth, minorities

7 4. Effective multilateralism Commitment to work with others Commitment to rules/norms Should build not erode legitimacy Synthesis and inter-operability versus duplication and rivalry End to ‘stove-pipe’ mentality

8 5. Regional focus Focus on wider connections of conflicts Existing dialogue emphasises ‘states’ How to engage the neighbourhood Not just as source of threat but also opportunity eg justice, economic initiatives

9 Policy implications Stability or sustainability? Rule of law Security @individual level = empowerment Justice, inclusion a strong civil society - accountability Macro economic measures- GDP/currencies Plus....Issues of crime, jobs, micro credit

10 ‘GOOD’ POLICIES Granular Leading to Organic Opportunity Dignity

11 The challenges of a human security approach addressing complexity – Grey areas – Coping mechanisms and survival strategies – heroic or harmful? – Presence of ambiguous and contradictory markers of human security – Radical shifts in perceptions – Dialogues to manage complexity? clashes between principles: - the need for trade-offs : eg human rights versus bottom up, universal norms vs particularist cultures -legitimating political authority : who decides? - Choices should be deliberative and transparent

12 The state and HS Complementary or competitive? The paradox of HS – challenges the state but also needs to collaborate with it Who should deliver HS? Can the state be co-opted ? Re-aligning priorities and powers

13 Other challenges Coping with messy outcomes – Undesirable and unintended consequences – No neat edges – systematic not systemic – Ownership of process and results – Balance between universal templates and local translation Technical assistance or political intervention? – HS is deeply political – Outcomes are important as well as process – How to avoid the ‘Twin Peaks’ – No added value – HS as a technology of governance/biopolitics

14 Lessons (not learned) from the Balkans experience Legitimacy → De jure AND de facto Legacy → integrated, sustainable programmes; including the private sector Coherence → Making multilateralism effective – stakeholder identification and engagement Agreement on objectives approaches narratives Timeframes → benchmarking evaluation, accountability Continuous assessment

15 HS Challenges in the region – Different levels and types of vulnerability – Managing the transition Question of capacity or will? – Legacy: Security services; arms – Crime and porous borders _________ ____ ____________ __________ __ __________ ____ ______ ___ ___ ______________ _____ ______ ____ ____ _______ _________ – Unemployment, and creating legitimate occupations – Reshaping the social safety net and the political contract – An inclusive society – The affective dimension – hope, optimism, managing expectations

16 Some ideas for thematic research A regional security sector reform programme along HS lines? Access to justice Involve and stimulate the private sector – HS can also apply to business What kind of civil society ? – Citizen networks – Dialogue and grass roots representation Exploiting new technologies – countering marginalisation

17 Doing HS – research methods Good research is research conducted with people rather than on people changing the perspective of the researcher to achieve a different ethical position a different kind of knowledge unleash social, political processes of change

18 Participatory Action Research (PAR) PR/PAR = attempts to address power imbalances + oppressive social structures – Between researcher and subject – Between outside observer and inside actor – Between priveleged and underpriveleged/powerful and powerless

19 Power of the researcher: – Select who has knowledge – Which type of knowledge to include – Ask questions – Interpret data Risks to communities?

20 PR -Values the researched community as a vital part of the research project and its members as experts of their experiences [ Grant, Nelson, Mitchell] ‘The role of PR is to enable people to empower themselves through the construction of their own knowledge in a process of action or reflection or conscientisation’ [Freire]

21 Doing research as though people matter What harms? Which humans? What’s wrong with surveys? Need to address power imbalances A dialogic approach – Open ended conversations – 2 level translation Multidirectional security markers

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