2Pre-reading taskA. Recollect the past five years in your life. Think of the most important event that changed the course of your life. Now write the event in the format given. One example is given to help you.Sl.NoEvents which gave a different shape to your lifeSupport you receivedDifficulties you had to faceOutcome result1Breaking my leg (2001)Friends lend class notesSister gave all helpSense of helplessnessUnable to attend classesLost six months of classesBecame very carefulB. Now listen to one of your friends describing an event and fill in the columns.
3Pre-reading taskWhen ‘Aryabhata’, the first India built satellite, was launched in April 1975, India entered the space age. The dreams of a great scientist were realised, though he was not alive to celebrate the successful launching. He is none other thanDr. Vikram Sarabhai.Vikram Sarahhai was born on 12th August, 1919, in Ahmedabad in an affluent family. His parents were generous, and their time as well as money was spent on social work. The Sarabhais had started a school called ‘Retreat’ where children found a unique way of learning. The teachers were kind and affectionate.Vikram’s earliest education was at the Retreat. He was very good at his studies, especially in science, and all his teachers were sure that he would make his mark as a scientist.
4As a high school student, he was fond of science As a high school student, he was fond of science. When his friends read story books, Vikram read about the achievements of great scientists. Observing his interest in science, his father encouraged him and provided all the books and magazines that Vikram needed.After his studies at the Gujarat College at Ahmedabad, he thought of going to England for higher studies in Physics. In 1937, he left for England and joined St. John’s College. He got his degree in Physics and Mathematics. He read about scientific discoveries and inventions. He was so well versed in various topics in Physics that many of his classmates went to him with their problems. He would solve their problems in an easy and interesting way.After his return to India, Vikram joined the Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore, where he worked under Sir C.V. Raman. It was a treat for him to work as an assistant to the great Nobel Laureate. Vikram carried out research on cosmic rays. He knew that the study of cosmic rays would help in understanding terrestrial magnetism and the atmosphere, the nature of the sun and the outer space.In 1942, Vikram Sarabhai started working at the Meteorological Department at Poona. He worked on Weather, and he dreamt of a Research Laboratory for studies on cosmic rays.
5In 1943, when he was just 23, Vikram went up the Himalayan mountains to conduct experiments on cosmic rays. He was successful in his efforts. He was awarded PhD. by the Cambridge University in 1947 for his studies on the subject.With the help of his friends, Dr. Sarabhai realised the dream of setting up a Research Laboratory for cosmic rays at Ahmedabad. Using telescopes and other instruments, Dr.Sarabhai and his students made accurate observations on cosmic rays.While he was actively working at the Physical Research Laboratory at Ahmedabad, Dr. Sarabhai became interested in the study of outer space. The Research Laboratory became the centre for learning of Space Physics, Plasma Physics and such allied subjects. Under Dr. Sarabhai’s guidance the Laboratory became internationally famous. A number of research scholars were trained there.
6As a teacher, Dr. Sarabhai was almost worshipped by the students As a teacher, Dr. Sarabhai was almost worshipped by the students. He was so friendly with them that he could often be seen sitting with them discussing their problems at a cafeteria. He was never angry at the mistakes his students made.Once a research student burnt up an electric meter. He was very upset fearing that Dr. Sarabhai would reprimand him.But, when Dr. Sarabhai came to know what had happened, he smiled and said, “Don’t worry. We’ll buy another one. How else would you learn? Next time, I’m sure, you’ll be more careful.” This was how he encouraged the students at the Research Laboratory.Dr. Sarabhai realised the importance of industries in India. He set up Sarabhai Chemicals, a pharmaceutical industry at Ahmedabad. This is one of the pioneer concerns producing medicines and chemicals. The employees in this unit were given the best training available.Dr. Sarabhai sent many of them abroad to get training. He used his scientific acumen to make the industrial scene healthier. His aim was to make India self-reliant in the field of medicine.
7Dr. Sarabhai was an ideal manager of human resources Dr. Sarabhai was an ideal manager of human resources. He maintained close relationship between the employers and the employees. This enabled the employees to work in a conducive atmosphere. Dr. Sarabhai personally supervised all the work and recognised sincere workers. Committed workers were given more challenging work. Dr. Sarabhai always got the expected results.In 1969, Dr. Sarabhai constituted the ‘Indian Committee on Space Research’. He knew that space science could help many areas of importance, like education, communication and weather forecast. The aim of the Indian Committee on Space Research was to develop space science and technology in India. He wanted to make India a leader in the field of Space Science.This Committee on Space Science was later named the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Dr. Sarabhai was its first Chairman. His first achievement at the ISRO was setting up the first rocket launching station at Thumba. Similarly, the second station was set up at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh, close to Chennai. Thus he created a new chapter in India’s space age. ISRO has since launched a number of satellites and rockets. All these achievements of Dr. Sarabhai were recognised when he was made the Chairman of the U.N.Conference on Outer Space in It was a very prestigious position for Dr. Sarabhai, and a matter of great honour and pride for India.
8In April 1975, the first India built satellite was launched In April 1975, the first India built satellite was launched. It was named ‘Aryabhata’, after the great Indian astronomer and mathematician of ancient times. Unfortunately, Dr. Sarabhai was not alive to see his dream come true. Today these satellites are very useful in the field of communication and weather forecasting. They are also used for telecasting developmental programmes like family planning, adult education and healthcare.Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was made the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in Many thought that he would not be successful as the Chairman, as Atomic Physics was a new subject for him. But Dr. Sarabhai read all about atomic energy, contacted experts in the field, and proved that he deserved the post of the Chairman.Dr. Sarabhai was a warm - hearted human being - modest, simple and soft-spoken. He did not live to see all his dreams come true. He died in sleep on 30th December 1971 at the age of 52. In his death the country lost a great scientist and visionary.Note :Aryabhata: Born in 476 AD in Kerala, Aryabhata went to the University of Nalanda, near present Patna. He was the first to deduce that the earth is round and that it rotates on its own axis, resulting in day and night. He declared that the moon has no light of its own, but reflects sunlight. He discovered the reasons for solar and lunar eclipses. As a mathematician he was the first to find out the value of π (pi) as In his book Aryabhatiyam, he dealt with other aspects of mathematics such as geometry, mensuration, square root, cube root and progression.
9SOURCE1. Vikram Sarabhai by Amrutha Patel Learners Press (P) Ltd, L-1 Green Park Exten., New Delhi-162. Scientists of India by Dilip Salwi, Children’s Book Trust, Nehru House, No.4, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi.A. ORAL WORKNow you can have a quiz programme. Form groups of 8-10 students following the directions given by your teacher. Each group can frame questions on one aspect of Sarabhai’s life.Personal lifeProfessional growthAcademic growthContribution to the field of ScienceThe question types can be as followsYes/No questionsOne word answer typeMultiple choice questionsTrue or false type
10Conduct the quiz with the help of your teacher Conduct the quiz with the help of your teacher. All of you can participate.Judgement criteriaCorrect answers givenGood questions framedB VOCABULARYSome words can be made to mean the opposite of what they usually mean by adding prefixes like ‘un’, ‘in’, ‘dis’, ‘ir’, ‘mis’etc.e.g. successful - unsuccessfulaccurate - inaccurateappear - disappearregular - irregularfortune - misfortuneAdd prefixes to form the opposites of the following words:direct, active, interesting, healthy, honour, fortune, true, capable, expensive, complete, relevant, wise, responsible, justice.
11II. Give one word for each of the following: one who foretells things by studying stars a person who travels in a spacecraft one who studies rocks and soil one who studies the human mind one who conducts a scientific study of the sun, the moon and the stars a person who is skilled in preparing medicines
12III. Replace the words underlined in the following sentences with suitable phrasal verbs given in brackets: (broke in, make out, asked for, got through, backed out, gave away, give up, turned out)The workers demanded more pay and shorter working hours. He agreed to help, but withdrew when he found how difficult it was. The thieves entered the room by force and stole the gold. He finished the exams successfully. The teacher distributed books. I can’t get at the meaning of your letter. Enormous crowds gathered for the procession. The doctor advised the old man to stop chewing pan.
13IV. Arrange the following words in the alphabetical order as you find them in a dictionary. shower, smile, squeak, sequence, stipulate, squeeze, smoke, snooker, servant, squash, sanitation, stipend, shuttle, sentinel, sensible.dedicate, litre, aerial, numeral, geometry, number, captain, peace, cellular, incubate, pleasant, fault, eleven, hemorrhage, linear, inculcate, capital, merriment, ability, memory.
14V. Fill in the blanks with the correct words given in brackets. Riksha Bila was a ________ and the ________ group of the vanaras entered it in search of water. (whole, hole)His ________ hand was hurt and so he used to _______ with his left hand. (write, right)It was easy to contact you because I ________ your ______ address. (knew, new)The _________ was ready to serve people even at _______ (night, knight)The sage had a _______ in his hut. It was very _______ to him. (deer, dear)
15C .GRAMMAR 1. Simple past tense and present perfect form Put the following questions to one of your friends in the class and see if he/she can answer them.(Add a few more questions)What did you do yesterday?Did you play any games?Did you watch any programme on T.V.?What time did you have your supper?What did you do after supper?Did you have strange dreams in your sleep?
16Have you completed your homework? Have you had breakfast? b. Put the following questions to one of your friends in the class and see if he/she can answer them.Have you completed your homework?Have you had breakfast?What have you learnt in today’s class? Which novels of Shivaram Karanth have you read?Have you ever been to Jammu and Kashmir? Have you ever been punished by your teacher? viii)c) Now put all the answers in two separate columns.Col. ACol. Bi)ii)iii)iv)v)vi)vii)viii)
17What differences do you find between the answers in col ‘A’ and col ‘B’? In column ‘A’, the main verbs are in the _______ ______ form.In column ‘B’ the main verbs are in the _____________ form.The answers in col ‘A’ are in __________ _________ tense.The answers in col ‘B’ are in _________ _________ form.Column ‘A’ describes ___________________ events.Column ‘B’ shows the result or effect of the completed action.Now look at the following table:
18E. Now look at the following table: Simple Past TensePresent Perfect FormExamplesI visited Agra in 1998.I saw ‘Baby’s Day Out’ last year.tense used: simple pastmain verb: past tense formregular verb irregular verbvisited sawshows a past eentfocus: on the time of the activity (in 1998 last year)answers the question when?Examples:My child has eaten all the sweetsI have not visited Agratense (form): Present PerfectMain verb: past participle formAuxiliary (helping verb)has havethird person used for allsingular subject persons andnumbers exceptthird person singular subjectTells us about the past event and its present or current relevanceFocus: on the completion of the action and its result (My child’s stomach is full. Now he has a stomach ache. I would now like to visit Agra)Does not answer the ‘when’
19F. Complete the following sentences by filling in the gaps using the appropriate forms of the verbs given in the box.I _______with an accident last month. I __________ _________ to the hospital then and ________ _special medicine to relieve pain. My sister and friends _________me at the time.Now if I think of my school. I ________________very bad. I ________my project work. I ______________ __________for the examination. I _______ ________my confidence. But I still _______hope in life!Feel help meet give miss admit complete lost have study
20G. Here are some words taken from your lesson G. Here are some words taken from your lesson. How do you pronounce themlaunched realized startedworked called providedused encouraged neededhelped solved awardeddeduced returned expectedtrained constitutedrecognized wanteddiedNow listen to the teacher/refer to a dictionary and check your answers.Note: Remember that the past tense forms are articulated in three different ways as: |t|, |d| and |Id|. Your teacher will guide you about this
212. Active and Passive Voice I. a) Read the following extracts from the text. Arayabhata was launched in April,The Sarabhais had started a school called “Retreat”.Sarabhai’s father provided him with all the books.Dr. Sarabhai was worshipped by his students.b) Classify the above sentences under the two headings given below based on the meaning.ABImportance given to personImportance given to work(doer)
22 II. Classify the following into Active and Passive sentences: II. Classify the following into Active and Passive sentences:Dr. Sarabhai personally supervised all the work.One could see Dr. Sarabhai sitting with the students at a coffee shop.He was awarded PhD. by the Cambridge University in He gave the committed employees more challenging work. A number of research scholars were trained at the Research Laboratory.The committee made Dr. Sarabhai the Chairman. ISRO named the Satellite Aryabhata. The satellites are also used for telecasting developmental programmes like family planning, adult education and health care.
23Here are some more examples of contexts in which the passive voice is preferred. Formal notices and announcements. Passengers are requested to remain seated.The term fees should be paid before the 5th of this month. Press reportsMore people have been questioned and the conspiracy angle is being probed.Scientific or Technical processes Common salt is obtained from the sea.
24III. Collect ten sentences each under Active and Passive voice from any source (newspapers/storybooks) for your future reference.D. COMPREHENSION AND COMPOSITIONFour alternatives are given below each question. Pick out the correct one to complete the sentence.After his studies at the Gujarat College, Ahmedabad, Vikram thought of going to England ___________to carry out research in mathematics to carry out research on cosmic rays for higher studies in physicsto found a Research LaboratoryVikram Sarabhai was awarded the Doctorate Degree by the Cambridge University for _____________________his studies on cosmic rays his achievements at the ISRO setting up the Sarabhai Chemicals his studies on outer space.
25Vikram Sarabhai’s first achievement at the ISRO was________ setting up a rocket launching station at Sriharikotasending employees abroad to get good trainingsetting up a rocket launching station at Thumbaconducting successful experiments on cosmic raysVikram Sarabhai liked to work at the Indian Institute of Science because __________________the institute had good telescopes and equipmentthe weather of Bangalore was conducive to himhe could work there as an assistant to Sir C.V. Ramanit was a research institute.
26The employees at Sarabhai Chemicals loved and respected Dr The employees at Sarabhai Chemicals loved and respected Dr. Vikram Sarabhai very much because ________Dr. Sarabhai personally supervised all the work they could go abroad for special trainingcommitted employees were given more challenging workDr. Sarabhai maintained a close relationship between the employers and the employees.The aim of the Indian Committee on Space Research was to _____make India self-reliant in the field of Space technologydevelop space science and technology in Indiaestablish a space Research Laboratorydevelop pharmaceutical industry in India.Many thought that Dr. Vikram Sarabhai would not be successful as the Chairman of Atomic Commission because __________he was already the Chairman of the ISRO the employees of the Atomic Energy Commission were not well trained Atomic Physics was a new subject for Dr. SarabhaiDr. Sarabhai’s health did not suit the new post.
27II. Answer each of the following questions in two or three sentences: Write a brief note on Sarabhai’s education. How did Sarabhai help his classmates at St. John’s College?How can we say that Sarabhai was friendly with his students?What is ‘Sarabhai Chemicals’? What does it produce?What enabled the employees of Sarabhai Chemicals to work in a conducive atmosphere?How are satellites useful?How did Dr. Vikram Sarabhai prove that he deserved the post of the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission?For what work did Vikram Sarabhai get the Doctorate Degree from the Cambridge University?Which position was the most crucial (of utmost importance) in Sarabhai’s life and why?
28III. Read the following extracts and answer the questions that follow. ‘‘The Sarabhais started a school.’’What was the school called?Where was it started?How were the teachers of that school?Dr. Sarabhai’s health did not suit the new post.“Observing his interest in science, his father encouraged himWho does ‘him’ refer to?How did his father encourage him?Give the opposite of encourageIt was a treat for him to work as an assistant to the great Nobel laureate.” Who loved to work as an assistant? Who was the Nobel Laureate? What does ‘laureate’ mean?
29“It was a very prestigious position for Dr. Sarabhai.” What was the prestigious position?When was this position offered to Dr. Sarabhai? What was Dr. Sarabhai at that time?IV. Answer each of the following in a paragraph:Write about Vikram’s life as a schoolboy. How can we say that Dr. Sarabhai was a kindhearted teacher? What were Dr. Sarabhai’s contributions to pharmaceutical industry? What makes you feel that Dr. Sarabhai was an ideal manager of human resources
30V. Imagine that you are 25 years old. Prepare your curriculum vitae V. Imagine that you are 25 years old. Prepare your curriculum vitae. You can be as imaginative as possible.Draw your picture as you would look at the age of 25.Give the following details: Personal details Name Parent’s name Address for Correspondence Age, date of birth Nationality Qualifications Educational Professional Achievements Awards / Prizes Distinction Work Experience Names of firms / institutions Nature of work Hobbies Referees Date / Place Signature
31E. GROUP WORKSit in small groups of 4-5. One reads out the paragraph. Then discuss the content of the passage and find answers to the questions that follow.Bankim Chandra would never sacrifice justice and self-respect. The arrogance of whitemen never frightened him. When he was a deputy magistrate, he had a superior officer called Munroe, who was the Commissioner of Kolkata. On his morning walk, one day, Bankim Chandra met Munroe near Eden Garden. A British Officer in those days expected every Indian official to show him respect by bowing modestly before him. But Bankim Chandra just walked past him saying ‘‘Good morning’’ politely. Munroe was enraged. That evening Bankim Chandra received an order transferring him to a far off place.QUESTIONS:What did Bankim Chandra love most?How did the British officers behave with their Indian subordinates? What was the result of the polite ‘‘Good morning’’, to Munroe? What do you think of the incident?
32Glossary Abroad : to another country. Acumen : ability to think and judge quickly.Affluent : rich.Allied : related, similar.Astronomer : one who does scientific study on the sun, the moon, etc.Conducive : helping a desirable result to happen, helpful.Cosmic rays : a stream of radiation reaching the earth from the outer space.Deserve : to be worthy of.Generous : ready to give help.Make one’s mark : become successful.Modest : expressing a lower opinion of one’s own ability.Pharmaceutical : connected with the making of medicines.company.Pioneer : one who does something first.Prestigious : having admirationReprimand : disapprove.self-reliant : able to act without depending on others.Terrestrial : related to the earthUnique : new, different from others.Visionary : one who has noble aims for future.