Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere Notes Drill: In the atmosphere, what happens to the temperature as we increase altitude (rise)? Why? Objective: SWBAT review concepts related."— Presentation transcript:
1 Atmosphere NotesDrill: In the atmosphere, what happens to the temperature as we increase altitude (rise)? Why?Objective: SWBAT review concepts related to the composition and layers of the atmosphere in order to prepare for the quiz.HW: Study
2 Composition The atmosphere is made of: Nitrogen (78%) Used for growth & repair of cells.Oxygen (21%) Used to release energy for plants and animals.1% Other gases:Carbon Dioxide (0.036) Waste product for animals. Plants use for energy.Argon, Neon, Helium, Methane, Krypton, and Hydrogen.
3 Layers classified by temperature changes Troposphere: Conditions extremely variable. Weather occurs here. As we increase height our temp. decreases due to increased distance from Earth (source of warmth)Stratosphere: Contains Ozone (3 oxygen) which allows for temp. to increase as you rise through the atmosphere.
4 Layers of the Atmosphere Con’t Mesosphere: Meteor burn up in this layer. Temp. decreases as height increases due to movement away from heat source (ozone layer).Thermosphere: Temp. increases as height increases due to direct contact with sun’s energy.Ionosphere: Aurora Borealis, radio waves bounce offExosphere: Little to nothing in here. Satellites orbit
5 TrendsDensity: Density (the amount of stuff in a given amt. of space) decreases as height increases due to gravity.Pressure: Force applied due to weight of substance.Decreases as height increases.Gravity: Force that holds our atmosphere in place.
6 Vocabulary Atmosphere: Layer of gases that surrounds Earth. Weather: Condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.Ozone: Form of oxygen that has 3 atoms.Absorbs UV radiationHolds in heat.
7 Factors Affecting Weather Review Characteristics of AirMass: weightDensity: Amount of stuff (material) in a given amount of space.Pressure: Amount of force on a given area.Measuring Air Pressure: Barometer (inches, milibars)Mercury: Liquid mercury rises in the cylinder as air pressure increases.Anaroid: Solid thin metal walls that expand or push in based on atmospheric pressure.
8 Changes in the Troposphere As altitude increases temperature, density, and pressure decrease.
9 Energy in the Atmosphere Electromagnetic Waves: The sun’s energy that travels in waves through space.3 types of electromagnetic waves reach our planetVisible Light: Roy G. BivInfrared Radiation: Felt as heat.Ultraviolet Radiation: Least amount, causes skin cancer.
10 Energy must first pass the atmosphere Light can be either reflected or absorbed in the atmosphere.Scattering: Reflection in all directions.Blue light scatters most making the day skies appear.Morning & Evening skies appear pink and red because light strikes at an angle causing blue light to scatter even more.Reflection: Clouds, dust, and gas.Absorption: Caused by ozone gases and particles.
11 Energy Strikes the Surface of Earth Energy that makes it through the atmosphere strikes Earth’s surface.Absorption: It can be absorbed heating both land and water.Felt as heat (Infrared Radiation) and trapped by atmosphere called “Greenhouse Effect”Reflected: Some is reflected back into atmosphere.
12 Heat Transfer : Moving from a hotter object to a cooler object. Temperature: Average amount of energy of a substance and measured in Celsius (0 – 100) and Fahrenheit (32 – 212).3 Types of TransferRadiation: Directly from sun to object.Conduction: Contact; from 1 object to another.Convection: Transfer of heat by movement of fluid. Ex: boiling a hot dog, troposphere.
13 Local Winds: Unequal heating of land and water, smaller area, changes Local Winds can be found near a large body of water and around mountainous areas.Sea breezes: Occur during the day time when warm air rises from the land and is replaced by cooler air coming from the sea.Land breezes: Occur at night when cool air from land blows out to replace warmer air rising from sea.Monsoons: Land/sea breezes that occur over a larger area and carry a lot of water with them.Mountain breezes: Winds and air masses are funneled up the mountain during the day and directed down the mountain at night when cooler.
14 Global Winds: Unequal heating of globe, larger area, steady. Warm air rises near equator and falls at poles creating wind belts.Coriolis Effect: Due to rotation of the Earth winds do not follow a straight path.Northern hemisphere: Turns to right.Southern hemisphere: Turns to left.3 major belts:Trade winds: Blow from NE to SWPrevailing Westerlies: Blow from SW to NEPolar Easterlies: Blow away from poles, East to West
15 Other Areas Areas of Inactivity due to rising or falling air masses. Doldrums: Rising air near equator.Horse Latitudes: Falling air (30 degrees North).Jet Stream: Bands of high wind 10 km above Earth’s surface blowing from West to East.