Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere Notes Drill: In the atmosphere, what happens to the temperature as we increase altitude (rise)? Why? Objective: SWBAT review concepts related."— Presentation transcript:
Atmosphere Notes Drill: In the atmosphere, what happens to the temperature as we increase altitude (rise)? Why? Objective: SWBAT review concepts related to the composition and layers of the atmosphere in order to prepare for the quiz. HW: Study
Composition The atmosphere is made of: Nitrogen (78%) Used for growth & repair of cells. Oxygen (21%) Used to release energy for plants and animals. 1% Other gases: Carbon Dioxide (0.036) Waste product for animals. Plants use for energy. Argon, Neon, Helium, Methane, Krypton, and Hydrogen.
Layers classified by temperature changes Troposphere: Conditions extremely variable. Weather occurs here. As we increase height our temp. decreases due to increased distance from Earth (source of warmth) Stratosphere: Contains Ozone (3 oxygen) which allows for temp. to increase as you rise through the atmosphere.
Layers of the Atmosphere Con’t Mesosphere: Meteor burn up in this layer. Temp. decreases as height increases due to movement away from heat source (ozone layer). Thermosphere: Temp. increases as height increases due to direct contact with sun’s energy. Ionosphere: Aurora Borealis, radio waves bounce off Exosphere: Little to nothing in here. Satellites orbit
Trends Density: Density (the amount of stuff in a given amt. of space) decreases as height increases due to gravity. Pressure: Force applied due to weight of substance. Decreases as height increases. Gravity: Force that holds our atmosphere in place.
Vocabulary Atmosphere: Layer of gases that surrounds Earth. Weather: Condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place. Ozone: Form of oxygen that has 3 atoms. Absorbs UV radiation Holds in heat.
Factors Affecting Weather Review Characteristics of Air Mass: weight Density: Amount of stuff (material) in a given amount of space. Pressure: Amount of force on a given area. Measuring Air Pressure: Barometer (inches, milibars) Mercury: Liquid mercury rises in the cylinder as air pressure increases. Anaroid: Solid thin metal walls that expand or push in based on atmospheric pressure.
Changes in the Troposphere As altitude increases temperature, density, and pressure decrease.
Energy in the Atmosphere Electromagnetic Waves: The sun’s energy that travels in waves through space. 3 types of electromagnetic waves reach our planet Visible Light: Roy G. Biv Infrared Radiation: Felt as heat. Ultraviolet Radiation: Least amount, causes skin cancer.
Energy must first pass the atmosphere Light can be either reflected or absorbed in the atmosphere. Scattering: Reflection in all directions. Blue light scatters most making the day skies appear. Morning & Evening skies appear pink and red because light strikes at an angle causing blue light to scatter even more. Reflection: Clouds, dust, and gas. Absorption: Caused by ozone gases and particles.
Energy Strikes the Surface of Earth Energy that makes it through the atmosphere strikes Earth’s surface. Absorption: It can be absorbed heating both land and water. Felt as heat (Infrared Radiation) and trapped by atmosphere called “Greenhouse Effect” Reflected: Some is reflected back into atmosphere.
Heat Transfer : Moving from a hotter object to a cooler object. Temperature: Average amount of energy of a substance and measured in Celsius (0 – 100) and Fahrenheit (32 – 212). 3 Types of Transfer Radiation: Directly from sun to object. Conduction: Contact; from 1 object to another. Convection: Transfer of heat by movement of fluid. Ex: boiling a hot dog, troposphere.
Local Winds: Unequal heating of land and water, smaller area, changes Local Winds can be found near a large body of water and around mountainous areas. Sea breezes: Occur during the day time when warm air rises from the land and is replaced by cooler air coming from the sea. Land breezes: Occur at night when cool air from land blows out to replace warmer air rising from sea. Monsoons: Land/sea breezes that occur over a larger area and carry a lot of water with them. Mountain breezes: Winds and air masses are funneled up the mountain during the day and directed down the mountain at night when cooler.
Global Winds: Unequal heating of globe, larger area, steady. Warm air rises near equator and falls at poles creating wind belts. Coriolis Effect: Due to rotation of the Earth winds do not follow a straight path. Northern hemisphere: Turns to right. Southern hemisphere: Turns to left. 3 major belts: Trade winds: Blow from NE to SW Prevailing Westerlies: Blow from SW to NE Polar Easterlies: Blow away from poles, East to West
Other Areas Areas of Inactivity due to rising or falling air masses. Doldrums: Rising air near equator. Horse Latitudes: Falling air (30 degrees North). Jet Stream: Bands of high wind 10 km above Earth’s surface blowing from West to East.