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Atmosphere Notes  Drill: In the atmosphere, what happens to the temperature as we increase altitude (rise)? Why?  Objective: SWBAT review concepts related.

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Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere Notes  Drill: In the atmosphere, what happens to the temperature as we increase altitude (rise)? Why?  Objective: SWBAT review concepts related."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere Notes  Drill: In the atmosphere, what happens to the temperature as we increase altitude (rise)? Why?  Objective: SWBAT review concepts related to the composition and layers of the atmosphere in order to prepare for the quiz.  HW: Study

2 Composition  The atmosphere is made of: Nitrogen (78%) Used for growth & repair of cells. Oxygen (21%) Used to release energy for plants and animals. 1% Other gases:  Carbon Dioxide (0.036) Waste product for animals. Plants use for energy.  Argon, Neon, Helium, Methane, Krypton, and Hydrogen.

3 Layers classified by temperature changes  Troposphere: Conditions extremely variable. Weather occurs here. As we increase height our temp. decreases due to increased distance from Earth (source of warmth)  Stratosphere: Contains Ozone (3 oxygen) which allows for temp. to increase as you rise through the atmosphere.

4 Layers of the Atmosphere Con’t  Mesosphere: Meteor burn up in this layer. Temp. decreases as height increases due to movement away from heat source (ozone layer).  Thermosphere: Temp. increases as height increases due to direct contact with sun’s energy. Ionosphere: Aurora Borealis, radio waves bounce off  Exosphere: Little to nothing in here. Satellites orbit

5 Trends  Density: Density (the amount of stuff in a given amt. of space) decreases as height increases due to gravity.  Pressure: Force applied due to weight of substance. Decreases as height increases.  Gravity: Force that holds our atmosphere in place.

6 Vocabulary  Atmosphere: Layer of gases that surrounds Earth.  Weather: Condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.  Ozone: Form of oxygen that has 3 atoms. Absorbs UV radiation Holds in heat.

7 Factors Affecting Weather Review  Characteristics of Air Mass: weight Density: Amount of stuff (material) in a given amount of space. Pressure: Amount of force on a given area.  Measuring Air Pressure: Barometer (inches, milibars) Mercury: Liquid mercury rises in the cylinder as air pressure increases. Anaroid: Solid thin metal walls that expand or push in based on atmospheric pressure.

8 Changes in the Troposphere  As altitude increases temperature, density, and pressure decrease.

9 Energy in the Atmosphere  Electromagnetic Waves: The sun’s energy that travels in waves through space.  3 types of electromagnetic waves reach our planet Visible Light: Roy G. Biv Infrared Radiation: Felt as heat. Ultraviolet Radiation: Least amount, causes skin cancer.

10 Energy must first pass the atmosphere  Light can be either reflected or absorbed in the atmosphere.  Scattering: Reflection in all directions. Blue light scatters most making the day skies appear. Morning & Evening skies appear pink and red because light strikes at an angle causing blue light to scatter even more.  Reflection: Clouds, dust, and gas.  Absorption: Caused by ozone gases and particles.

11 Energy Strikes the Surface of Earth  Energy that makes it through the atmosphere strikes Earth’s surface.  Absorption: It can be absorbed heating both land and water. Felt as heat (Infrared Radiation) and trapped by atmosphere called “Greenhouse Effect”  Reflected: Some is reflected back into atmosphere.

12 Heat Transfer : Moving from a hotter object to a cooler object.  Temperature: Average amount of energy of a substance and measured in Celsius (0 – 100) and Fahrenheit (32 – 212).  3 Types of Transfer Radiation: Directly from sun to object. Conduction: Contact; from 1 object to another. Convection: Transfer of heat by movement of fluid. Ex: boiling a hot dog, troposphere.

13 Local Winds: Unequal heating of land and water, smaller area, changes  Local Winds can be found near a large body of water and around mountainous areas.  Sea breezes: Occur during the day time when warm air rises from the land and is replaced by cooler air coming from the sea.  Land breezes: Occur at night when cool air from land blows out to replace warmer air rising from sea.  Monsoons: Land/sea breezes that occur over a larger area and carry a lot of water with them.  Mountain breezes: Winds and air masses are funneled up the mountain during the day and directed down the mountain at night when cooler.

14 Global Winds: Unequal heating of globe, larger area, steady.  Warm air rises near equator and falls at poles creating wind belts.  Coriolis Effect: Due to rotation of the Earth winds do not follow a straight path. Northern hemisphere: Turns to right. Southern hemisphere: Turns to left.  3 major belts: Trade winds: Blow from NE to SW Prevailing Westerlies: Blow from SW to NE Polar Easterlies: Blow away from poles, East to West

15 Other Areas  Areas of Inactivity due to rising or falling air masses. Doldrums: Rising air near equator. Horse Latitudes: Falling air (30 degrees North).  Jet Stream: Bands of high wind 10 km above Earth’s surface blowing from West to East.


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