2First President of the European Coal & Steel Community - '52 to '55 Idea of a unified Europe not a new one - look at the Roman Empire! Then Napoléon tried ……..But after WWII, European leaders were determined to bind Europe together to put an end to war on the continent once and for all.Many worked to help make this dream come true. Among the early flag-bearers were Jean Monnet & Maurice Schumann, who will always be associated with the creation of a unified Europe.Jean Monnet - ( )First President of the European Coal & Steel Community - '52 to '55Maurice Schumann ( ) French Foreign Minister
3Robert Schumann, French Foreign Minister, "Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany. Any action taken must in the first place concern these two countries. With this aim in view, the French Government proposes that action be taken immediately on one limited but decisive point. It proposes that Franco-German production of coal and steel as a whole be placed under a common High Authority, within the framework of an organisation open to the participation of the other countries of Europe. The pooling of coal and steel production should immediately provide for the setting up of common foundations for economic development as a first step in the federation of Europe (...)"Robert Schumann, French Foreign Minister,and his historic speech of 1950
4Part 1 -1945 to 1957 In 1946, Winston Churchill said: "We must build a kind of United States of Europe. In this way only will hundreds of millions of toilers be able to regain the simple joys and hopes which make life worth living. The process is simple. All that is needed is the resolve of hundreds of millions of men and women to do right instead of wrong and to gain as their reward blessing instead of cursing." (...) The first step in the recreation of the European Family must be a partnership between France and Germany."
5Britain was invited to join, but hesitated …. ECSC was such a success that the same six countries decided to integrate other sectors of their economies.On March 25th 1957 they signed the Treaties of Rome, creating the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the European Economic Community (EEC). The member states set about removing trade barriers between them and forming a "common market".The Original six "Founder Members"FranceGermanyItalyBelgiumHollandLuxembourgBritain was invited to join, but hesitated ….
6Part 2 - from 1961July 30th 1961: introduction of the CAP (Common Agriculture Policy)1967: the institutions of the three European communities were merged; from this point on, there was a single Commission and a single Council of Ministers as well as the European ParliamentJuly 1st 1968: six member states abolished mutual trade barriers and adopted common customs policy for goods from outside the EU1973: Britain, Denmark & Ireland joined the Common Market.Britain had long hesitated to join, fearing loss of sovereignty; economic realities eventually forced her to reconsider, but French President Charles de Gaulle vetoed Britain's entry; he could not accept Britain's close links with the USA - an on-going problem for France in its attitude to BritainDe Gaulle also feared dilution of the EU …..
7Sir Edward Heath signing UK accession to the Common Market in 1973. New Members in 1973BritainDenmarkIrelandFrench President and war hero Charles de Gaulle, a long-time thorn in the side of England, despite being allies in WWII. The UK was only able to join after his departure from politics.
8New Members in 1980s:Greece (1981)Portugal & Spain (1986)
9The Treaty of the European Union (Maastricht Treaty) signed on February 7th 1992; came into force January 1993by adding this inter-governmental co-operation to the existing "Community" system, the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union (EU)aim to make easier development of economic and monetary union as well as politicalintroduced new forms of co-operation between the member state governments - for example on defence, and in the area of "justice and home affairs"Big step towards more common policiesEconomic and political integration means joint policy decisionsEU countries have developed common policies in a very wide range of fieldsThese include:agriculturecultureconsumer affairscompetitionenvironmentenergytransporttradeeducation
10January 1994 - European Monetary Institute (EMI) established as January European Monetary Institute (EMI) established as predecessor of European Central Bank but with limited competencesJanuary 1st fourth enlargement of EU; Austria, Sweden, and Finland become members of the EU; Norway again voted against membership
11March 25th Schengen Agreement came into force; provided open borders, banned custom inspection between states that signed it and also provided closer police and judicial cooperationDecember 13th EU started process of enlargement for ten new member states from Eastern Europe and CyprusMay 25th European Commission formally recommended eleven member states to enter EMU and participate in creation of Euro; Germany, France, Austria, Belgium, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and SpainJanuary 1st European Central Bank took over EU central monetary government with headquarters in Frankfurt
12The "Schengen" Countries full memberspartial membersnon EU with special agreementnon-SchengenThe"Schengen"Countries
13January 4th 1999 - euro becomes single currency in eleven members of EMU January 2nd Greece becomes twelfth member of Euro zoneJanuary 1st the euro becomes official payment currency.February 28th the euro becomes the sole currency within the twelve participating Member StatesFebruary 1st Treaty of Nice comes into forceMay 1st Accession Treaty enters into force - the European Union's biggest enlargement ever
14plusCyrusCzech RepublicHungaryMaltaPolandSlovakiaSloveniaNew Members in 2004100 million new members:The Baltic StatesEstoniaLatviaLithuania
15The Euro Countries (Euroland) EU, but not in EurolandNon-EU