Presentation on theme: "The Essential Question"— Presentation transcript:
1The Essential Question Name _______Block _______Date _______Chapter 11 - GeneticsThe Essential QuestionWho is Gregor Mendel and what did he have to do with alleles, chromosomes, traits, or this topic called genetics?
2Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes Two nearly identical copies of each chromosome in an organism. One set is donated by the mother and the other set by the father.Sister chromatidsAfter a chromosome has replicated during interphase they consist of two identical chromatids which are called sister chromatids.
3ChromosomesGeneThe basic unit of heredity. The sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome encodes for the manufacturing of proteins and thus the traits of the organism.
4Important terms and concepts Gene: controls one characteristicAlleles: alternative forms of a geneDominant: an allele that is phenotypically expressed regardless of the other alleleRecessive: an allele that is only phenotypically expressed when the dominant allele is not presentLocus: location of a gene on a chromosome
6Important terms and concepts Heterozygous: contains two different alleles for the trait being studiedHomozygous: contains identical alleles for the trait being studiedGenotype: the collection of alleles in an individualPhenotype: the physical expression of the alleles (appearance & behaviour)
7Gregor MendelHe was a High School Biology teacher that gave up teaching to become a monk.For his work in genetics, he earned the title of being know as: The Father of Genetics.
8Mendels first law the Law of Segregation Each organism has two hereditary factors for each trait, which are called ___________. And during meiosis, gamete (egg or sperm) formation, the two factors separate (segregate) into different gametes so that each gamete has only one type of each factor.
9Mendel's second law the Law of Independent Assortment Genes located on different chromosomes assort independently of one another.