Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 - Genetics The Essential Question Who is Gregor Mendel and what did he have to do with alleles, chromosomes, traits, or this topic called genetics?"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 - Genetics The Essential Question Who is Gregor Mendel and what did he have to do with alleles, chromosomes, traits, or this topic called genetics? Name _______ Block _______ Date _______
2 Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes Two nearly identical copies of each chromosome in an organism. One set is donated by the mother and the other set by the father. Sister chromatids After a chromosome has replicated during interphase they consist of two identical chromatids which are called sister chromatids.
3 Chromosomes Gene The basic unit of heredity. The sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome encodes for the manufacturing of proteins and thus the traits of the organism.
4 Important terms and concepts Gene: controls one characteristic Alleles: alternative forms of a gene Dominant : an allele that is phenotypically expressed regardless of the other allele Recessive : an allele that is only phenotypically expressed when the dominant allele is not present Locus: location of a gene on a chromosome
6 Important terms and concepts Heterozygous : contains two different alleles for the trait being studied Homozygous : contains identical alleles for the trait being studied Genotype : the collection of alleles in an individual Phenotype : the physical expression of the alleles (appearance & behaviour)
Gregor Mendel He was a High School Biology teacher that gave up teaching to become a monk. For his work in genetics, he earned the title of being know as: The Father of Genetics.
8 Mendels first law the Law of Segregation Each organism has two hereditary factors for each trait, which are called ___________. And during meiosis, gamete (egg or sperm) formation, the two factors separate (segregate) into different gametes so that each gamete has only one type of each factor.
9 Mendel's second law the Law of Independent Assortment Genes located on different chromosomes assort independently of one another.