Presentation on theme: "The Essential Question"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Essential Question Name _______Block _______Date _______Chapter 11 - GeneticsThe Essential QuestionWho is Gregor Mendel and what did he have to do with alleles, chromosomes, traits, or this topic called genetics?
2 Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes Two nearly identical copies of each chromosome in an organism. One set is donated by the mother and the other set by the father.Sister chromatidsAfter a chromosome has replicated during interphase they consist of two identical chromatids which are called sister chromatids.
3 ChromosomesGeneThe basic unit of heredity. The sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome encodes for the manufacturing of proteins and thus the traits of the organism.
4 Important terms and concepts Gene: controls one characteristicAlleles: alternative forms of a geneDominant: an allele that is phenotypically expressed regardless of the other alleleRecessive: an allele that is only phenotypically expressed when the dominant allele is not presentLocus: location of a gene on a chromosome
6 Important terms and concepts Heterozygous: contains two different alleles for the trait being studiedHomozygous: contains identical alleles for the trait being studiedGenotype: the collection of alleles in an individualPhenotype: the physical expression of the alleles (appearance & behaviour)
7 Gregor MendelHe was a High School Biology teacher that gave up teaching to become a monk.For his work in genetics, he earned the title of being know as: The Father of Genetics.
8 Mendels first law the Law of Segregation Each organism has two hereditary factors for each trait, which are called ___________. And during meiosis, gamete (egg or sperm) formation, the two factors separate (segregate) into different gametes so that each gamete has only one type of each factor.
9 Mendel's second law the Law of Independent Assortment Genes located on different chromosomes assort independently of one another.