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Making Global Public Policy Lecture 9 UN Professor OMalley.

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1 Making Global Public Policy Lecture 9 UN Professor OMalley

2 Generally Speaking The UN has become a more transnational actor; it has opened the door for a comprehensive global policy process with itself at the center Relies on Subsidiarity – a concept of governance that places responsibility for policymaking and implementation at the lowest and most decentralized level commensurate with the ability to perform assignments effectively and efficiently Allows for burden sharing (protecting the UN from overload) Attracts support for UN policies by lowering decision making to level where costs and benefits are experienced almost immediately

3 Generally Speaking Centered on the idea of thematic diplomacy – emphasizes international cooperation to solve human problems of a global character These are thought to be soft or peripheral issues dealt with by the Other United Nations Based on a stakeholder strategy NGOs Civil society Business community *Works only to the extent that member states are willing to let it

4 De Facto and De Jure Expansion Article 71 of Charter allows NGOs to establish consultative status ECOSOC Resolution 31 (1996) grants general consultative status – NGOs can propose agenda items World Conferences companion NGO forums Required participation in PrepComms – preparatory committees for UN- sponsored global meetings ILO first IGO to incorporate popular decision making – each state gets an employer and worker rep. UNAIDS first programme to welcome NGOs reps. with full membership on coordinating board

5 Role of NGOs Bring community concerns to UN bodies Monitor global policies and international agreements Provide analysis and expertise Serve as early warning mechanisms Act as interest groups w/in the UN system Serve on agency boards Develop programme proposals

6 Coordination of NGO activity CONGO (Conference on NGOs in Consultative Status with ECOSOC) – serves as representative voice of all NGOs Ensure there are the fullest opportunities and facilities for performing consultative functions Provide forum on consultative process Convene meetings to exchange views on items of common interest Executive committee of NGO community acts in advisory and liaison capacity with UNDPI NGLS (UN Non-governmental Liaison Service) assists development NGOs in coordinating efforts with appropriate UN agencies

7 Overall NGOs have become citizen organizations within the UN system IGOs that have failed to democratize face criticism (ex: WTO, World Bank) Example of working partnership: UNDP and WWF (formerly the World Wildlife Fund) – entered global partnership in 2003 to combat environmental problems

8 Special Rapporteurs Definition: Individuals who are well-known experts in their field tasked with investigating and reporting on a particular field in thematic diplomacy Often referred to as country mechanisms at UN – provide most up-to-date information on human rights abuses (and other info) available to world community Work on torture, violence against women, child prostitution, racial discrimination, right to food, Ex: Rwanda SR warned of genocide in 1993 before it began

9 Global Compact Established by SG Annan in Overall goals: Promotion of international corporate citizenship Social responsibility Establishment of corporate good practices Companies must agree to ten principles (see p ) Global Compact Office with 17 member advisory council – UNIDO (UN Industrial Development Org. is a core element; helps promote SMEs)

10 Global Compact MMI (Money Matters Institute) – forum in which private companies, IOs and Third World policymakers can exchange ideas on private capital and the development process Global Compact Learning Forum – online service for sharing lessons learned in private corporate efforts Critique: Is UN-corporate partnership a good idea? Promotes only capitalist economic system MNCs cause most development and environmental problems UN wont stand up to partners when it needs to

11 Human Rights in General Mentioned in Preamble of Charter and numerous references throughout ECOSOC created CHR (Commission on Human Rights) in 1946; UDHR adopted in 1948 Western states focused more on civil and political rights – judicial process to protect rights Developing nations emphasize economic, cultural and social rights – prerequisite to political rights – collective outlook that the group deserves rights over the individual

12 International Bill of Human Rights Composed of the UDHR and the following 2 treaties: ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Freedoms of speech, press, worship and assembly Security of person and property Free political participation Procedural due process Obligation to submit regular reports to Human Rights Committee ICESCR (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) Guarantees adequate standard of living (food, clothing, housing) Access to education, social security, medical care, employment, shelter, mental health and leisure

13 UN HR Conventions and Development See list on p of text, and

14 UN Institutional Structure for HR CHR (Commission on Human Rights) holds greatest authority UDHR may be most important achievement, but passes over 80 resolutions/yr and proposes new conventions, declarations and conferences 53 member stateselected by ECOSOC by geography Sub-commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights – 26 experts acting in personal capacity and recommending policiesimportant access point for NGOs, other IOs and governments Working groups on arbitrary detention, forced disappearances, indigenous peoples and Human Rights Situations

15 UN Institutional Structure for HR Besides CHR and Human Rights Committee (which makes recommendations to countries) – 5 committees: Committee Against Torture Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Committee Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women Committee on the Rights of the Child Membership varies from reps., selected by states party to the specific convention Voting not governed by state policy but by individuals Solicit country reports from governmentsreview reports and listen to complaints from NGOs

16 UN Institutional Structure for HR CHR Dialogue-Report processnexus of national governments, NGOs, committees secretariat and UN agencies in development of human rights 1993 World Conference on Human Rights (the Vienna Conference) Extreme poverty and social exclusion violates human dignity Created UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) Focal point for all UN HR activities and secretariat for all treaty bodies Studies and provides recommendations, info and analysis to all UN organs dealing with HR Sponsors training programs for police, legal and military personnel Establishes field offices in conflict zones and directs world attention to HR crises

17 Judicial Process Over time growing acceptance of the responsibility of individual leaders for crimes committed by the state Nuremberg Trials after WWIIleaders tried for crimes against humanitymurder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population, before or during war…whether or not in violation of domestic law of the country where perpetrated Tension between promotion of HR and sovereignty of states in UN Charter

18 Judicial Process ICTY (1993) and ICTR (1994) both created by Security Council; Special Court for Sierra Leone (2002) Judicial Diplomacy – UN and state negotiations to craft proceedings of national and international significance Peace settlement can trump HR prosecution (ex: Taylor allowed to stay free for negotiations on Liberia) These three lead to idea for International Criminal Court (ICC) – Rome Statute in 1998 (jurisdiction to genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity but not terrorism) Cases referred to ICC under Chapter VII, by a party to the Rome Statute, or by chief prosecutor with approval of 3 judges ICC not a subordinate agency to UN 18 judges to 9-year terms Victims can testify; various punishments

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