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English Pronunciation Practice English Pronunciation Practice Lecture 4 Liaison and Assimilation.

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Presentation on theme: "English Pronunciation Practice English Pronunciation Practice Lecture 4 Liaison and Assimilation."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Pronunciation Practice English Pronunciation Practice Lecture 4 Liaison and Assimilation

2 Liaison(or Sound-linking)

3 Liaison In English one word is not separated from another by pausing or hesitating; the end of one word flows straight on to the beginning of the next, e.g. first of all /'fә:st әv ' ɔ :l/ some of us /'sΛm әv әs/ The linking of words in connected speech may be divided into the following types:

4 1.consonant + vowel Examples: put it on /'puti't ɔ n/ look at it /'lukәtit/ think of it /'θiŋkәvit /

5 2.vowel + vowel a) ending with an unrounded-lip sound, add a /j/ sound. Examples: the other /ði j 'Λðә/ he is my uncle. /hi: j iz mai j 'Λŋkl/ she ate some./ ʃ i: j әt sәm/

6 b) ending with a rounded-lip sound, add a /w/ sound. Examples: two others /'tu: w 'Λðәz/ do it /'du: w it/ how old /'hau w 'әuld/

7 3. r-linking 3) When a word ending with r or re goes before a word beginning with a vowel sound /r/ is usually pronounced as a link. Examples: for ages /fәr 'ei ʤ iz/ her own /hә:r 'әun/ share out /' ʃ εә r 'aut/ far away /'fa:rә 'wei/

8 However, there are special circumstances in which a final r is silent even when the following word begins with a vowel. a) When there is a /r/ in the same syllable, e.g. a roar of laughter /ә 'r ɔ : әv 'la:ftә/ a rare animal /ә 'rεә 'æniml/ nearer and nearer /'niәrә әn 'niәrә/ b) when a pause is permissible between the two words (even if no pause is actually made).e.g. He opened the door and walked in. /hi: 'әupnd ðә 'd ɔ : әnd 'w ɔ :kt in/

9 4) some English people link a final /ә/ or even /a:/ and / ɔ :/ to an initial vowel in the same group by inserting a /r/ sound even if there is no letter r in the spelling. The /r/ sound added in this way is called intrusive r. Its existence should be known but not imitated. Examples: China and Japan /' ʧ ainәr әn(d) ʤ ә'pæn/ drama and music /'dra:mәr әn(d) 'mju:zik/ law and order /'l ɔ :r әn(d) ' ɔ :dә/ I saw a man /ai 's ɔ :r ә 'mæn/

10 Assimilation In connected speech, sounds, under the influence of their neighbors, are replaced by other sounds. Sometimes two neighboring sounds influence each other and are replaced by a third sound which is different from both the original sounds. This process is called assimilation.

11 3 types of assimilation 1)Progressive( ) 2)Regressive( ) 3)Reciprocal, or double( )

12 Progressive The assimilated sound is influenced by the preceding sound. For example: Whats this? /'w ɔ ts 'ðis/

13 Attention ! The strong voiceless consonant of a pair replaces the weak voiced consonant in the closely connected speech, but do not make it a general rule to replace the weak voiced consonant by the strong voiceless in other cases. A voiceless plosive ( ) or fricative ( ) is not assimilated to a voiced plosive or fricative which follows it.

14 Examples not very /'n ɔ t 'veri/, not /'n ɔ d 'veri/ black door /'blæk 'd ɔ :/, not /'blæg 'd ɔ :/ this boy /'ðis 'b ɔ i/, not /'ðiz 'b ɔ i/ if they come /'if ðei 'kΛm/, not /'iv ðei 'kΛm/

15 Regressive The preceding sound is influenced by the one following it. For example,: /z/ news /nju:z/ /s/ newspaper /nju:speipә/

16 Reciprocal or Double Assimilation the neighboring sounds influence each other. For example: /t/ /w/ twenty /twenti/

17 The usage of assimilation 1.Assimilation changing the work of vocal cords( ). Examples: /z/ /s/ is/iz/ Its easy./its 'i:zi/ has/hæz/ Whats happened? /'w ɔ ts 'hæpnd/ used/ju:zd/ I used to. /ai 'ju:st tu/

18 2. Assimilation changing the position of the lips: Before the bilabial sounds/m,p,b/,/n,t,d/ change to /m,p,b/ respectively. For example: in /in/ in bed /im 'bed/ ten/ten/ ten minutes /'tem 'minits/ dont/dәunt/dont be late./'dәump bi 'leit/ good/gud/ good-bye/gub bai/

19 3. Assimilation changing the place of articulation: a)Before the velar sounds /k,g/, /n,t,d/ change to /ŋ,k,g/ in /iŋ/ in case /iŋ 'keis/ dont /dәunt/ I dont care. /ai 'dәuŋk 'kεә/ good /gud/ good girl /gug 'gә:l/

20 b) Before / ʃ,j/, /s,z/ change to / ʃ, ʒ / respectively. this /ðis/ this shape /'ði ʃ ' ʃ eip/ this year /'ði ʃ 'jiә/ has /hæz/ has she come /'hæ ʒ ʃ i 'kΛm/ wheres yours /'wεә ʒ 'j ɔ: z/

21 c) The combinations of sounds /tj/ and /dj/ have changed into / ʧ /and/ ʤ /in an unstressed syllable: education /,e ʤ ukei' ʃ n/ not/,edjukei' ʃ n/ situation /,si ʧ uei' ʃ n/ not /,sitjuei' ʃ n/ Im glad to meet you. /aim 'gæld tә mi: ʧ u/ Did you like it? /'di ʤ u 'laik it/

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