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Lecture 3 Lecture 3 Weak forms and Rhythm Weak forms and Rhythm English Pronunciation Practice.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 3 Lecture 3 Weak forms and Rhythm Weak forms and Rhythm English Pronunciation Practice."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Lecture 3 Lecture 3 Weak forms and Rhythm Weak forms and Rhythm English Pronunciation Practice

3 Revision Tongue twisters A pleasant peasant keeps a pleasant pheasant and both the peasant and the pheasant are having a pleasant time together. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper prepared by his parents and put them in a big paper plate. Ripe white wheat reapers reap ripe white wheat right. The great Greek grape growers grow great Greek grapes.

4 Words Strong Vowels Weak Vowels at / has / she / :// could /

5 How are strong forms changed into weak forms? From strong vowels to weak ones / / –Prepositions at for from of to –Aux verbs am are can do does had has have must shall should was were will would –Adverbs conjunctions articles a an and as but some than that the –Pronouns her them us you your

6 From strong vowels to weak ones / / –be been he him his she we / / dropping –Weak forms which drop their initial / / except at the beginning of utterances –had has had have he her him his

7 Weak forms This unit deals with weak forms which are one of the most remarkable features of English. As a matter of fact, one must learn to use the weak forms of English words if one wants his English sounds to be English. As compared with the strong forms, the weak forms of these words show the following features: reductions of the length of sounds;reductions of the length of sounds; obscuration of vowels towards / /, / / or / / / / or / / ;obscuration of vowels towards / /, / / or / / / / or / / ; elision of vowels and consonants.elision of vowels and consonants. The following list presents the most common of these function words. The following list presents the most common of these function words.

8 Conjunctions and / nd/ nd \ a t. and / nd/ nd \ a t. / n/ bl k n\ wait. / n/ bl k n\ wait. /nd/ hi s t nd\ it. /nd/ hi s t nd\ it. / / bred n\ b / / bred n\ b as / z/ z l ju\ as / z/ z l ju\ but /b t/ b t ai k \ pr s ju:. but /b t/ b t ai k \ pr s ju:. that / / ai m fr id t a ° :nt \ help ju. that / / ai m fr id t a ° :nt \ help ju. than / n, n/ m : n\ ev than / n, n/ m : n\ ev

9 Pronouns he /hi/ (in careful speech or hi 1 vz iz \ l nd he /hi/ (in careful speech or hi 1 vz iz \ l nd in initial position) in initial position) / / (in rapid speech, never at h z / raivd? / / (in rapid speech, never at h z / raivd? the beginning of an utterance) the beginning of an utterance) him /im/ wi: ik spektid im\ jest dei. him /im/ wi: ik spektid im\ jest dei. his / / hi p t t in iz \ p k his / / hi p t t in iz \ p k she / / we did \. she / / we did \. her / :/ li:v : \ l n. her / :/ li:v : \ l n. / / a v \ met. / / a v \ met. /h / (when sentence-initial) h \ neim iz \ met /h / (when sentence-initial) h \ neim iz \ met

10 me /mi/ v mi \ h nd. me /mi/ v mi \ h nd. them / m/ v m \ les n. them / m/ v m \ les n. we /wi/ hau k n wi\ et ? we /wi/ hau k n wi\ et ? w V :t t. w V :t t. us / s/ let s \ du: t. us / s/ let s \ du: t. /s/ let s \. /s/ let s \. you /ju/ ju \ r you /ju/ ju \ r jes, ju\ k n. jes, ju\ k n. that / t / hi sed hiz \ best. that / t / hi sed hiz \ best.

11 Verbs do (aux.) /du /+ (before vowels) wai du ° :l v ju \ k m? wai du ° :l v ju \ k m? /d /+ (consonants) /d /+ (consonants) w ju \ n u? w ju \ n u? (vowel) +/d / (consonant) ha d ju / laik t? (vowel) +/d / (consonant) ha d ju / laik t? does (aux. ) /d z/ does (aux. ) /d z/ wen d ° re \ ra v. wen d ° re \ ra v. /z/ wenz i: \ ra v? /z/ wenz i: \ ra v? /s/ w ts i: \ laik? /s/ w ts i: \ laik?

12 am I +/m/ aim \ ra t. I +/m/ aim \ ra t. / m/ ( elsewhere) w t a t \ d ? / m/ ( elsewhere) w t a t \ d ? are / /+ consonant t v \ m / /+ consonant t v \ m / r/+ vowel p z r \ i. / r/+ vowel p z r \ i. be /bi/ t bi \ fa. t bi \ fa. t s t bi m\ p :vd. t s t bi m\ p :vd. been /b / hiz bin \ we been /b / hiz bin \ we

13 Verbsis /s/ (after /p, t, k, f, / ) ts n\ uld \ m p. /s/ (after /p, t, k, f, / ) ts n\ uld \ m p. /z/ (after vowels and voiced /z/ (after vowels and voiced consonants except stridents /z,, d / ) consonants except stridents /z,, d / ) hi:z \ k. hi:z \ k. (after /s, z;, ;, d /, the strong form / z/ is always used: (after /s, z;, ;, d /, the strong form / z/ is always used: w t z\ r t?) w t z\ r t?) was /w / a \ was /w / a \

14 has (aux. ) / z/ (after /s, z,,, t, d /) z su z / p bl. has (aux. ) / z/ (after /s, z,,, t, d /) z su z / p bl. /s/ (after /p, t, k, f, / ) /s/ (after /p, t, k, f, / ) d ra:f s °l \ nek. d ra:f s °l \ nek. / / (elsewhere) hiz \ s n. / / (elsewhere) hiz \ s n. have (aux. ) /v/ (after I, we, you, they) wiv \ t. have (aux. ) /v/ (after I, we, you, they) wiv \ t. / v/ w v ju \ t ? / v/ w v ju \ t ? /h v/ (at the beginning of h v ju / t uld im? /h v/ (at the beginning of h v ju / t uld im? a tone unit) a tone unit)

15 Verbs had (aux. ) /d/ (after I, he, she, we, you, they) hi d ud \ d b. hi d ud \ d b. / d/ re d \ st. / d/ re d \ st. /h d/ (at the beginning of a tone unit) /h d/ (at the beginning of a tone unit) h d ri: t / k m? h d ri: t / k m? can /k n/ k n \ da:ns. can /k n/ k n \ da:ns. /k / nau. /k / nau. could /k d/ k d ju / tel mi? could /k d/ k d ju / tel mi? shall / l/ t°de l \ k m. shall / l/ t°de l \ k m. / 1/ a l bi \ / 1/ a l bi \

16 will / /(after I, you, he, she, a 1\ k :l ju. will / /(after I, you, he, she, a 1\ k :l ju. we, you, they) we, you, they) /1/ (after consonants t 1\ du:. /1/ (after consonants t 1\ du:. except /1/) except /1/) / 1/ (after vowels and /l/) b 1 lu:zl n 1\ w. / 1/ (after vowels and /l/) b 1 lu:zl n 1\ w. must /m st / ( before vowels) ju m st \ up n it. must /m st / ( before vowels) ju m st \ up n it. /m s/ ( before consonants) ju m s\ tel h m. /m s/ ( before consonants) ju m s\ tel h m.

17 Determiners a / / (before consonants) h v °k p v \ ti:. an / n/ ( before vowels) h v n \ p 1. /n/ (in rapid speech, parti hi h n \ di. -cularly after an alveolar or palato-alveolar consonant) the / / (before consonants) : \ s : t °pli:z. / i/ (before vowels) a d z \ re t. some /s m, sm/ k n ju ° v mi s / pei.p ? (When some means "a certain quantity", it is always accented and pronounced as /s m/: s m \ frendz.)

18 Prepositions at / t/ l st °wi:k steid t \ h. at / t/ l st °wi:k steid t \ h. for /f /( before consonants) k m f \ 1 nt, pli for /f /( before consonants) k m f \ 1 nt, pli /f r, fr/( before vowels) aim d st \ da f r / d k. /f r, fr/( before vowels) aim d st \ da f r / d k. from /fr m,f m/ hi k ms fr \ 1 nd n. from /fr m,f m/ hi k ms fr \ 1 nd n. of / v/ \ s m v s. of / v/ \ s m v s. to /t / ( before consonants) wi t :kt t \ me ri. to /t / ( before consonants) wi t :kt t \ me ri. /tu/ (before vowels and in w be d m tu \ ri: /tu/ (before vowels and in w be d m tu \ ri: final position) ju d unt \ h v tu. final position) ju d unt \ h v tu.

19 There When there is used as an adverb of place and direction, it has no weak form and should be pronounced as / (r)/, as in All of us are\ there. However, when there is used to introduce a sentence which states that something exists, usually its weak form is used. Here are the two most commonly used pronunciation for there is and there are respectively: However, when there is used to introduce a sentence which states that something exists, usually its weak form is used. Here are the two most commonly used pronunciation for there is and there are respectively: there is / z/ z 'n \ w t there is / z/ z 'n \ w t there are / r / r 'ver °fain \ vju:z. there are / r / r 'ver °fain \ vju:z.

20 Contracted forms Certain English contracted verbs have special contracted forms when combined with not which has the weak form /nt/ after vowels and /nt/ after consonants when it follows are, is, should, would, has, have, could, dare, might. Special attention should be given to the negative forms of can, shall, will, do, must. For example: can't /k :nt/ ai k :nt \ ri: wi ju. can't /k :nt/ ai k :nt \ ri: wi ju. shan't / / :nt ° nt m ° u:m \. shan't / / :nt ° nt m ° u:m \. won't /w nt/ a w t°let ju \ !1 won't /w nt/ a w t°let ju \ !1 don't /d unt/ wi d nt la k it don't /d unt/ wi d nt la k it mustn't /'m. nt/ ju ' nt \ du: t. mustn't /'m. nt/ ju ' nt \ du: t.

21 The use of strong forms Although the weak forms mentioned in the previous part is common in English, their strong forms must be used in the following eases: Although the weak forms mentioned in the previous part is common in English, their strong forms must be used in the following eases: 1) Whenever the word is stressed, e. g. / k n a ? / k n a ? w w n d ju \ t u:z, / s : \ m? w w n d ju \ t u:z, / s : \ m? ai sed \ ei / s n, n t\ i: s n. ai sed \ ei / s n, n t\ i: s n. 2) Whenever the word is in a final position in a tone unit, except the personal pronouns he, him, his, her, them, us,e. g. 2) Whenever the word is in a final position in a tone unit, except the personal pronouns he, him, his, her, them, us,e. g. w ts \ t f :? w ts \ t f :? aid \ 1 tu:. aid \ 1 tu:. m h z. m h z. 3) Some prepositions, when occur before an unstressed pronoun, may either use the strong or weak form. 3) Some prepositions, when occur before an unstressed pronoun, may either use the strong or weak form. m st v (or / v/ ) \ ke s. m st v (or / v/ ) \ ke s. a v bin \ we t f (or /f :/) ju. a v bin \ we t f (or /f :/) ju.

22 Exercise 1. Now listen and repeat. a cup of tea a loaf of bread a bundle of flowers a cup of tea a loaf of bread a bundle of flowers at the door in the field have an idea at the door in the field have an idea coming and going sons and daughters in and out coming and going sons and daughters in and out tell him about it give her a lesson Yes, he has. tell him about it give her a lesson Yes, he has. drive them home some of them most of us drive them home some of them most of us from all over the world from above come from London from all over the world from above come from London the office for the sake of for a long time the office for the sake of for a long time Yes, I'd like to. come to me as it is Yes, I'd like to. come to me as it is It was late. You are correct. He is wonderful. It was late. You are correct. He is wonderful. Does he like her? Do you know that? Yes, I do. Does he like her? Do you know that? Yes, I do. No, I don't, Yes, she does. I've been there for two times. No, I don't, Yes, she does. I've been there for two times. There are two of them. There is a car over there. He's two sons. There are two of them. There is a car over there. He's two sons. We can not do it. You mustn't do that. That will do. We can not do it. You mustn't do that. That will do.

23 Exercise 2. Now try the same with the following sentences. (1) We were very worried. (1) We were very worried. (2) I'm just dying for a drink, (2) I'm just dying for a drink, (3) There wasn't a single woman. (3) There wasn't a single woman. (4) There are some very fine views. (4) There are some very fine views. (5) Which month suits the others? (5) Which month suits the others? (6) We talked to Tom. (6) We talked to Tom. (7) They stood by and watched. (7) They stood by and watched. (8) His beard gives him a very fierce appearance. (8) His beard gives him a very fierce appearance. (9) We're so weary of hearing his ideas. (9) We're so weary of hearing his ideas. (10) How far is it to the Town Hall? (10) How far is it to the Town Hall? (11) What can we suggest to them for Christmas? (11) What can we suggest to them for Christmas? (12) How much can you let my mother have? (12) How much can you let my mother have? (13) Haven't you heard from Harry Atkins?, (13) Haven't you heard from Harry Atkins?, (14) Most of them are missing. (14) Most of them are missing. (15) Has he taken his umbrella with him?. (15) Has he taken his umbrella with him?.

24 Exercise 3. Listen to the tape. Pay special attention to the pronunciation of the italicized words. Then read after the tape. I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. He is in Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an engineer. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the center of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From there, he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting. I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. He is in Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an engineer. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the center of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From there, he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting. (Adapted from New Concept English, Book II, Lesson 4) (Adapted from New Concept English, Book II, Lesson 4)


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