Presentation on theme: "I N T HE N AME O F G OD Dr. Zohreh Lavasani N ON V ERTEX P RESENTATION."— Presentation transcript:
I N T HE N AME O F G OD Dr. Zohreh Lavasani N ON V ERTEX P RESENTATION
B REECH PRESENTATION Incidence: %3-%4 Term single fetus Gestational age:
P REDISPOSING FACTORS 1. Previous breech delivery 2. Oligohydramnious 3. Polyhydramnious 4. Uterine relaxation due to pariety 5. Multiple pregnancy 6. Fetal anomaly(Malformation of C.N.S such as Anencephaly,Hydrocephaly %1.5-%2) 7. Pelvic mass 8. Uterine abnormality 9. Placenta previa 10. Chromosomal abnormality up to %1
P REDISPOSING FACTORS No strong correlation between breech and contracted pelvis In more than %50 no causative factor
D IAGNOSIS Abdominal exam Vaginal exam (D.D with face presentation) Imaging techniques (Ultrasound,Pelvimetry, M.R.I and radiography)
F RANK B REECH
C OMPLETE B REECH
I NCOMPLETE B REECH
T YPES O F B REECH P RESENTATION F RANK I NCOMPLETE C OMPLETE
C OMPLICATIONS 1. L.B.W (Preterm and I.U.G.R) 2. Perinatal mortality (4 fold in term fetus and 2-3 fold in preterm,1/3 are preventable) and morbidity 3. Head Trauma 4. CNS Trauma 5. Softe Tissue&Muscle Trauma 6. Decelaration Of FHR 7. CP
P ROGNOSIS 1 Both mother and fetus are at higher risk compared with cephalic presentation. Maternal morbidity and mortality is increased because of greater frequency of operative delivery especially in emergency cesarean deliveries.
P ROGNOSIS 2 Perinatal mortality and morbidity: prognosis of the fetus is considerably worse than the vertex presentation Major Contributers: preterm delivery, congenital anomaly and birth trauma Outcomes: Due to careful assesment before vaginal delivery and increased cesarean, bad outcomes are decreased from %9 to %3 from to
V AGINAL D ELIVERY Pelvic exam and breech type Time for molding (Head Trauma, Hypoxia and acidosis) Preterm delivery (Head entrapment) Nuchal arm (%6) Cord prolapse (espicially in small fetus and footling breech) Apgar score Hyperextension of fetal head (%5),Stargaser fetus or flying fetus Induction of labor
RECOMMENDATION FOR DELIVRERY Up to %87 cesarean Frank breech term with E.F.W= Grams and adequate pelvis and flexed head is good candida for vaginal delivery
R ECOMMENDATION FOR CESAREAN Large fetus Any degree of contraction or unfavarable shape of the pelvis Hyperextension of fetal head Indicated delivery Uterine dysfunction Incomplete or footling breech An apparently healthy and viable fetus in mother with indicated delivery or in active labor Sever I.U.G.R Previous prenatal death or children suffering from birth trauma Request of T.L Lack of experienced operator
M ETHODS OF VAGINAL DELIVERY Spontaneous breech delivery Partial breech extraction Total breech extraction
L ABOR MANAGEMENT 1 During labor both mother and fetus are at considerably increased risk compared with cephalic presntation so rapid evaluation should be made to establish the status of membranes,F.H.R,uterine contractions, and cervical condition A venous catheter is inserted and infusion begun as soon as possible
Route of delivery may have taken place before admission based on the type of breech,flexion or extention of head,fetal size,quality of contractions,type and size of maternal pelvis and preferences of the informed parents. Sonography for fetal anomaly L ABOR MANAGEMENT 2
Radiography is necessary for vaginal delivery Guidelines for monitoring the high risk fetus are applied (one-on – one nursing,fetal monitoring and physician must readily available) Risk of cord prolapse must be considered with R.O.M,so immidiate vaginal exam and F.H.R monitoring for 5-10 minutes is recommended L ABOR MANAGEMENT 3
D ELIVERY TEAM 1. Skilled obstetrician 2. An associate to assist delivery 3. An anesthesia personnel 4. An individual trained to resuscitate infant
V AGINAL D ELIVERY
D ELIVERY OF THE AFTERCOMING H EAD Mauriceau Maneuver Prague Maneuver Piper Forceps Gentel traction on the fetal body with cervix manually slipped over the occiput Duhrssen incision I.V nitroglycerin is recommended by some Symphysiotomy
Prag Maneuver Duhrssen Incision
ANALGESIA AND ANESTHESIA The second stage is significantly prolong Pudendal block for episiotomy and intravaginal manipulation, Nitrous oxide plus oxygen provide further relief pain If general anesthesia is required,it can be induced with thiopental plus a muscle relaxant
MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY 1 Maternal injuries :Manual manipulations increase the risk of infection, intrauterine maneuvers may cause rupture of uterus, laceration of cervix and anesthesia for uterine relaxation may cause uterine atony and hemorrhage.
MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY 2 Fetal injuries: Fracture of humerus and clavicle, hematomas of s.c.m, separation of the epiphyses of scapula, femur or humerus. paralysis of arm (due to pressure on the brachial plexus or overstretching the neck), spoon shape or actual fracture skull, testicular injury.
Fracture of femur
VERSION A procedure in which the fetal presentation is altered by physical manipulation External cephalic version with %35-%80 success rate Internal podalic version for delivery second twin
E XTERNAL CEPHALIC VERSION
I NDICATIONS FOR EXTERNAL CEPHALIC VERSION 1 Breech presentation with 36 weeks of gestation and not in labor Version should not be done if N.V.D is contraindicated (previa, nonreassuring fetal status or uterine incision)
I NDICATIONS FOR EXTERNAL CEPHALIC VERSION 2 Version is succesful in multiparous women with non engaged fetus and normal A.F Factors associated with failed version are diminished A.F, maternal obesity, anterior placenta, cervical dilatation, ant. or post. fetal spine and descent breech in to the pelvis
TECHNIQUE OF VERSION 1 Should be done in an area that has ready access to perform emergency cesarean Sonography (A.F,previa,fetal anomalies) Fetal monitoring Tocolysis and epidural analgesia RH immunization Forward roll /backwardroll
TECHNIQUE OF VERSION 2 Version is discontinued if exessive discomfort, persistant abnormal F.H.R or after multiple attempts The N.S.T is repeated after version until a normal test is obtained. Complications: abruption, fetal distress, fetal demise, uterine rupture, fetomaternal hemorrhage, amniotic fluid embolism, isoimmunization, preterm labor.
TRANSVERSE LIE %0.3 Incidence: %0.3 Diagnosis Inspection (abdomen is wide and fundus slightly above the umbilicus) leopold exam, vaginal exam (ribs, scapula and clavicle and even in neglected cases arm or hand prolapse into vagina and through vulva)
TRANSVERSE LIE (E TIOLOGY ) 1. Abdominal wall relaxation due to parity (10 fold in p4) 2. Preterm fetus 3. Placenta previa 4. Excessive amnionic fluid 5. Contracted pelvis
MANUVER OF LEOPOLD NEGLECTED TRANSVERSE LIE
MECHANISM OF LABOR 1 Spontaneous delivery is impossible Neglected transverse lie (pathologic ring) Morbidity is increased even with best care (due to previa and cord prolapse)
MECHANISM OF LABOR 2 Version may be attempted before labor Management of labor (cesarean with classic incision) If the fetus is small (below 800 gr) and the pelvis is large spontaneous labor is possible (conduplicato corpore)
V ERTEX SINCIPUT BROW FACE
FACE PRESENTATION 1 The head is hyperextend so that occiput is in contact with the fetal back and mentum is presenting (Mentum ant. %60 Or Mentum post %25) Incidence:1/600 or %0.17 Labor usually impeded in term fetus with M.P
FACE PRESENTATION 2 Flexion of the head and vaginal delivery is typical in M.A Presenting diameter is trachelobregmatic (7 mm longer than subocciputobrematic) قطر تِراکِلُو بِرِگماتیک یعنی فاصله بین فونتانل قدامی و محل اتصال کف دهان بر گردن Diagnose: Vaginal Exam D.D: Frank Breech
E TIOLOGY OF FACE PRESENTATION Any factor that favors extension or prevent head flexion 1. Marked enlargement of the neck 2. Coils of cord about the neck 3. Anencephal fetus 4. Contraction of pelvis (%40 inlet contraction) 5. Large fetus 6. Multiparous women
M ANAGEMENT OF LABOR In the absence of a contracted pelvis and with effective labor Mentum Ant. succesful vaginal delivery usually will follow. First stage is similar to vertex. second stage is similar or slightly longer Oxytocin is not a cotraindication
MENTUM POSTERIOR- MENTUM ANTERIOR
BROW PRESENTATION 1 The rarest presentation The engaging diameter is mentoparietal (1.5 cm longer than vertex) Dianose: The frontal suture, large anterior fontanel, orbital ridge, eyes and the root of the nose can be felt on vaginal exam
BROW PRESENTATION 2 Etiology: The causes are same as for the face presentation LABOR: Brow presentation is unstable and often converts to face (%30) or occiput (%20) and prognosis for delivery depends on the ultimate presentation
COMPOUND PRESENTATION In compound presentation, an exteremity prolapses alongside the presenting part, with both presenting in the pelvis simultaneously. Incidence:1/700 (hand or arm prolapsed alongside the head)
COMPOUND PRESENTATION Etiology: causes are conditions that prevent complete occlusion of the pelvic inlet by the fetal head like preterm birth Prognosis: perinatal loss is increased due to preterm delivery, cord prolapse and traumatic obstetrical prodcedure Management: In most cases, the prolapsed part will not interfere with labor
PERSISTANT OCCIPUT POSTERIOR 1 Most often undergo spontaneous anterior rotation Incidence: %15 early in labor and %5 at delivery Etiology: unknown, but transverse narrowing of the midpelvis is a contributing factor
PERSISTANT OCCIPUT POSTERIOR 2 Vaginal delivery: 1. Spontaneous delivery 2. Forceps delivery 3. Forceps rotation and delivery 4. Manual rotation and delivery 5. Outcome: Only %40 delivered spontaneously and cesarean for O.P accounted for %12 of all cesarean for dystocia.
PERSISTANT OCCIPUT TRANSVERSE Etiology: Etiology: Android or platypelloid pelvis and hypotonic uterine contraction Delivery: Delivery: If rotation ceases because of poor expulsive forces and pelvic contractures are absent, oxytocin, manual or forceps rotation is recommended.
UMBLICAL CORD COMPLICATION The mean length of umbilical cord at term cm (35-80cm) The longest umbilical cord reported (129cm) Male fetus have larger cord (1.6cm at term) Vertex fetuses have cord 4.5cm longer than breech There is no correlation between cord length and either fetal or placental weight.
CORD PROLAPSE 1 Incidence: %0.2-%0.6 (%0.4 in normal cord and never occurs with cords shorter than 35 cm and %4-%6 with cords longer than 80cm)
CORD PROLAPSE 2 Causative factors: 1. Excessive cord length 2. Mal presentation in %50 cases 3. L.B.W in %30-%50 of cases 4. Grand multiparity (<5 pregnancies) in %10 5. Multiple gestation in %10 of cases 6. Rupture of membrane in %10-%15 of cases
CORD PROLAPSE 3 Diagnose: should be suspected in any F.H.R abnormalities after rupture of the membranes and confirmed by palpation the cord alongside the presenting part Management: Trendelenburg or knee chest position and presenting part manually elevated through vaginal exam and cesarean as soon as possible Perinatal mortality is almost %15
TRUE KNOTS Incidence: %1(%0.3-%2.1), in longer cord is more common (%3 in cord longer than 80cm) Diagnose: Only after delivery Tight knot will demonstrate variable deceleration and must be manage No differnce in 5-minute Apgar scores or neurologic abnormalities at 1 year %4-%5 stillborns have through knots compared with %1 live-born infants
NUCHAL CORD Incidence: %25 One loop %21 and two or more loops %4 %0.1 four or more loops %14 with short cords and %53 in long cords No evidence that nuchal cord cause fetal death or significant fetal distress No increase in the incidence of depressed 5- minute Apgar score, perinatal mortality or abnormal neonatal development.