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Normal Labor and Delivery Barbara M. O’Brien, M.D. Maternal Fetal Medicine and Genetics.

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Presentation on theme: "Normal Labor and Delivery Barbara M. O’Brien, M.D. Maternal Fetal Medicine and Genetics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Normal Labor and Delivery Barbara M. O’Brien, M.D. Maternal Fetal Medicine and Genetics

2 Normal Labor and Delivery Definition of labor: uterine contractions that cause cervical change term pregnancy: weeks preterm: <37 weeks Postdates pregnancy: >42 weeks

3 Stages of labor First Stage-- stage of cervical effacement and dilation –Begins when uterine contractions of sufficient frequency, intensity, and duration are attained to bring about effacement and progressive dilation of the cervix –Ends when the cervix s fully dilated (10 cm) to allow passage of the fetal head

4 First Stage of Labor

5 Stages of labor Second stage of labor-- stage of expulsion of the fetus –begins when dilatation of the cervix is complete and ends with delivery of the fetus

6 Second Stage of Labor

7 Stages of labor Third stage of labor-- stage of separation of separation and expulsion of placenta –begins immediately after delivery of the fetus and ends with delivery of the placenta and fetal membranes

8 Third Stage of Labor

9 Divisions of First Stage of Labor Divides 1st stage into latent and active phase: –latent phase: onset of labor is defined according to Friedman as the point at which the mother perceives regular contractions regular ctx take place along with cervical softening and effacement prolonged latent phase: defined as greater than 20 hours in a nullipara and greater than 14 hours in a parous woman

10 Divisions of First Stage of Labor –Active phase: cervical dilation rate of 1.2 cm/hr for nulliparas and 1.5 cm/hr for parous women These rates of cervical dilation do not start at a specific dilatation cervical dilation of 3 or 4 cm or more, in the presence of uterine contractions can be taken to reliably represent the threshold for active labor nullipara on average dilate 1.2 cm/hour and multips on average dilate 1.5 cm/hour (minimum)

11 Mechanisms of Normal Labor Fetal orientation is described with respect to fetal lie, presentation, attitude, and position These can be established clinically by abdominal palpation, vaginal exam, or by U/S Fetal lie: the lie is the relation of the long axis of the fetus to the mother and is either longitudinal or transverse

12 Mechanisms of Normal Labor Fetal presentation: the presenting part is the portion of the body of the fetus that is either foremost within the birth canal or is in closest proximity to it. In longitudinal lies, the presenting part is the fetal head or breech –In transverse lies, the presenting part is the shoulder

13 Mechanisms of Normal Labor Cephalic presentation: –Classified according to the relation of the head to the body of the fetus Breech presentation: –frank breech: when thighs are flexed and legs are extended over the anterior surfaces of the body –complete breech:if thighs are flexed on abdomen and legs upon thighs –incomplete or footling: if one or both feet, or one or both knees, are lowermost

14 Types of Breech Presentations

15 Mechanisms of Normal Labor Frequency of Various Positions at term: –Vertex: 96% –Breech 3.5% –Face: 0.3% –Shoulder: 0.4% Diagnosis of Fetal Presentation and Position: –Abdominal Palpation/Leopold Maneuvers

16 Mechanisms of Normal Labor Cardinal Movements of Labor: –Engagement: BPD passes through the pelvis inlet –Descent –Flexion: chin is brought into contact with fetal thorax –Internal Rotation: turning of the head such that the occiput moves towards the pubic symphysis or posteriorly –extension: of the head (or breech) so it can pass –External rotation: head undergoes restitution –expulsion: delivery of the anterior and posterior shoulders

17 Identification of Labor Uterine contraction that cause cervical change Vaginal Exam: –note dilation, effacement, consistency, station –Ruptured membranes? Fern, pool, nitrazine test sterile speculum infrequent vaginal exams if SROM

18 Maternal Monitoring and Management during Labor Maternal Vital Signs every 4 hours –if temperature: chorioamnionitis: need to treat with antibiotics that will cover gram negative and anaerobes (ampicillin and gentamicin –Group B strep is a big offender and we have moved to universal screening Oral Intake: food should be withheld during active labor Analgesia

19 Spontaneous Delivery –Delivery of the head Episiotomy vs. no episiotomy clearing the nasopharynx check for a nuchal cord –Delivery of the shoulders –clamping the cord –Watchful waiting for the placenta unless there is unusual bleeding give oxytocin –Do any vaginal repair as needed


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