Presentation on theme: "John F. Kennedy The “King of Camelot” part 1 part 2 part 3"— Presentation transcript:
1John F. Kennedy The “King of Camelot” part 1 part 2 part 3
2The Political Scene of the 1960’s Two vivacious candidates looked to become the next President of the United States during the election of 1960.John Fitzgerald Kennedy, grandson of Boston’s former mayor, Honey Fitz and son of the previous Ambassador to England, Joseph Kennedy, looked to move his seat from the United States Senate to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.
3BackgroundOf Irish descent, he was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, Graduating from Harvard in 1940, he entered the Navy.In 1943, when his PT boat 109 was rammed and sunk by a Japanese destroyer, Kennedy, despite grave injuries, led the survivors through perilous waters to safety.Back from the war, he became a Democratic Congressman from the Boston area, advancing in 1953 to the Senate.He married Jacqueline Bouvier on September 12, 1953.In 1955, while recuperating from a back operation, he wrote Profiles in Courage, which won the Pulitzer Prize in history.
4Nixon BackgroundBorn in California in 1913, Nixon had a brilliant record at Whittier College and Duke University Law School before beginning the practice of law.In 1940, he married Patricia Ryan; they had two daughters, Patricia (Tricia) and Julie.During World War II, Nixon served as a Navy lieutenant commander in the Pacific.On leaving the service, he was elected to Congress from his California district.In 1950, he won a Senate seat. Two years later, General Eisenhower selected Nixon, age 39, to be his running mate.As Vice President, Nixon took on major duties in the Eisenhower Administration. Nominated for President by acclamation in 1960
5The Road to the White House In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President, and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for President.Millions watched his television debates with the Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon.The Kennedy/Nixon debates were the first ones to occur on television.People focused very much on what they candidates looked like and how they reacted.People felt like the two candidates were right there with them.As was stated, “You can hear each man directly”, “Nothing is between you and what he says” and “You can see which man gets rattled easily”Debates
6The ElectionBoth candidates used television as a means for campaigning.The Democrats spent more than $6 million in television and radio spots while the Republicans spent just over $7.5 millionKennedy CampaignNixon Campaign AdThere were clearly two completely different tactics at used by two completely different peopleHowever, both focused on issues of the Cold War, calling themselves “Cold Warriors”However, they both preached different things in regard to the Cold War.
7Their ThoughtsJFK was deeply concerning about the Soviet UnionHe was also worried about the country of Cuba that was aligning itself with the Soviet UnionHe also talked about a “missile gap” stating that the USA was behind the Soviets in regard to weaponryMany had their doubts about the fact that he was Catholic. Protestants were afraid that Catholicism would run his Presidency instead of his governmental policies.Nixon thought that the USA was on the right track thanks to IKE.He warned that Democrats would bring inflation and that JFK had little knowledge about foreign affairs.
8The ResultsThe election of 1960 was one of the closest elections in the history of the United States.John F. Kennedy went to bed at his Cape Cod, MA home called Hyannis Port when there still was no winner declared.When he awoke the next morning he found himself to be the next President of the United States.He won the popular vote by 119,000 votes and the electoral college 303 to 219. In some states, only a few votes would have completely changed history.
9The Kennedy “Mystique” People were absolutely taken with JFK.They loved his youth and optimism.On Inauguration Day, January 20th, 1961 Kennedy once again pulled at the heart strings of Americans when he said:Kennedy InaugurationThe day was cold and the Inauguration almost canceled.The problem with the weatherScenes from the dayPeople were freezing but still they came all bundled up just to see him speak.The Kennedy Mystique still is carried into today
10Jackie Kennedy Biography The inauguration of John F. Kennedy in 1961 brought to the White House and to the heart of the nation a beautiful young wife and the first young children of a President in half a century.She was born Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, daughter of John Vernon Bouvier III and his wife, Janet Lee.Her early years were divided between New York City and East Hampton, Long Island, where she learned to ride almost as soon as she could walk.Jacqueline was dubbed "the Debutante of the Year" for the season, but her social success did not keep her from continuing her education.
11More On JackieAs a Vassar student she traveled extensively, and she spent her junior year in France before graduating from George Washington University.These experiences left her with a great empathy for people of foreign countries, especially the French.In Washington she took a job as "inquiring photographer" for a local newspaperHer path soon crossed that of Senator Kennedy, who had the reputation of being the most eligible bachelor in the capital.Their romance progressed slowly and privately, but their wedding at Newport in 1953 attracted nationwide publicity.Kennedy MarriageWith marriage "Jackie" had to adapt herself to the new role of wife to one of the country's most energetic political figures. Her own public appearances were highly successful, but limited in number.
12More on JackieAfter the sadness of a miscarriage and the stillbirth of a daughter, Caroline Bouvier was born in 1957; John Jr. was born between the election of 1960 and Inauguration Day. Patrick Bouvier, born prematurely on August 7, 1963, died two days later.Jackie's Feelings about Patrick's DeathTo the role of First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy brought beauty, intelligence, and cultivated taste.Her interest in the arts, publicized by press and television, inspired an attention to culture never before evident at a national level.She devoted much time and study to making the White House a museum of American history and decorative arts as well as a family residence of elegance and charm.A Tour of the White HouseShe defined her major role as "to take care of the President" and added that "if you bungle raising your children, I don't think whatever else you do well matters very much."
13More on JackieMrs. Kennedy's gallant courage during the tragedy of her husband's assassination won her the admiration of the world. Thereafter it seemed the public would never allow her the privacy she desired for herself and her children.She moved to New York City; and in 1968 she married the wealthy Greek businessman, Aristotle Onassis, 23 years her senior, who died in March 1975.When her former brother-in-law Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated three months earlier, Jacqueline decided that Kennedys were being "targeted" and she and her children had to leave the States. So, marriage to Onassis made sense: he had the power to give the protection she wanted; she had the social cache he craved
14Kennedy’s PoliciesWhen Kennedy went to the White House he wanted to implement a new legislative program called The New FrontierHe wanted to increase aid to education, provide health insurance to the elderly, create a department of Urban Affairs and help migrant workersKennedy found out that it was difficult to pass legislation especially when Kennedy was not beloved by most democrats or republicans in the CongressCongress defeated many of Kennedy’s policies: health insurance for elderly, a Department of Urban Affairs, and federal aid to education.Kennedy worked to lower the unemployment rate and to keep the economy on the upswingHe pushed businesses to to increase productivity and he asked Union leaders to keep the wage increases down.When he met opposition from the steel workers he threatened by have the government by steel from some of the other countries.His tactics worked by weakened his relationships with the countries business owners.
15More Policies Some members were afraid of inflation JFK also adopted supply-side tactics and pushed for a cut in tax ratesSome people were afraid that a tax cut would only help the wealthyKennedy thought that a tax cut would give businesses more money to expand.Congress refused the tax cutSome members were afraid of inflationThey did support an Area Redevelopment Act and a Housing ActBoth these things would help the poor living in slums
16Women’s Rights and the Warren Commission Kennedy helped women to make strides in the 1960’sKennedy had some women in prominent positions such as Esther Peterson who was the assistant secretary of labor and director of the Women’s Bureau of the Department of LaborIn 1961 he created the Presidential Commission on the Status of WomenThis promised federal action against gender discrimination and affirmed the right of women to be equally paid in employmentIn 1963 he signed the Equal Pay Act for womenEarl Warren was the Chief Justice of the United States.One of the most important things that the Warren Court did was called “reappointment” or the way in which states draw up political districts based on changes in populationThe problem was that sometimes, in some districts the vote of an urban resident was less influential that a rural residentSee page 844 in the textbook
17Extending Due Process and Beyond The US Supreme Court decided to use the 14th Amendment in regard to the Bill of RightsThe 14th Amendment says “that no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law”Due Process means that the law may not treat individuals unfairly, arbitrarily or unreasonably, and that courts must follow proper procedures and rules when trying cases”In the 1960’s the Supreme Court said that this applied to all states when upholding the Bill of RightsSome changes made:State courts could not consider evidence obtained in violation of the federal ConstitutionDefendants have a right to a lawyer even if they can’t pay themselvesMiranda Warnings: right to remain silent before being questioned by the police, anything said can be used against them, they have a right to a lawyer and one could be provided if necessary
18Church and State The Warren Court also made rules about this saying: States could not compose official prayers and require those prayers to be recited in state public schoolsThere could be no state-mandated Bible readings in public schoolsFinally, prohibiting the sale and use of birth control devices violated citizen’s constitutional rights
19Kennedy: Global Challenges The major issue when Kennedy came to office was the relationship between The USA and The Soviet UnionAs a result, Kennedy spent a lot of his time trying to guide the nation through the Cold WarHis main focus was to stop the spread of communism using different programsHe looked for what was called the “flexible response” for nations that needed help against communismKennedy pushed for a build up of conventional troops and weapons.He also supported guerilla warfare in limited conflicts.The soldiers of this became known as “green berets” complete with green berets head gear.
20Latin AmericaJFK was worried about Latin America because the conditions were so badMany were in extreme poverty with the wealthy running the governmentThe USA wanted to stop communism from coming into Latin America by keeping the existing government in power so military personnel were sent thereThe Latin Americans did not like the intrusion of the troopsJFK created Alliance for Progress to help create a “free and prosperous Latin America”Over a 10 year period the USA promised $20 billion to help Latin American countries establish schools, housing, health care, and fairer land distributionThe money was not always used in a positive way but instead to keep some of the same governments in control
21The Peace Corps The Peace Corps was designed to help fight poverty It sent young Americans to perform humanitarian services in poorer countriesThe participants were trained and then they were to spend 2 years in the countries that needed assistanceThey laid out sewage systems in Bolivia and trained medical technicians in Chad.Some taught English or built roadsBy late ,000s of Americans were in 30 countriesThe Peace Corps is still alive and well today as one of JFK’s best legaciesThe Peace Corps today
22Crises of the Cold War: Bay of Pigs The first crisis was in Cuba which is only 90 miles outside of the American shoresFidel Castro established ties with the Soviet Union, instituted land reforms, and seized foreign-owned businesses, many of them were American.The Cuban alliance with the Soviets and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was disturbing.Khrushchev wanted to strengthen Cuban militarilyWhen IKE was President he was also afraid of the Soviet/Cuban relationship so he gave the CIA permission to start training and arming Cuban exiles known as La Brigada. Their job would be to invade the island. This would hopefully begin an uprising against Castro
23More The point was to keep the USA involvement a secret When JKF became President his administration okayed the mission.The Bay of Pigs InvasionOn April 17th, 1961, only three months into JFK’s Presidency, 1,400 armed Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs on the South of Cuba.The invasion was a disasterLa Brigada’s boats ran into coral reefThe USA canceled air supportThe point was to keep the USA involvement a secretThe uprising against Castro never happenedWithin 2 days Castro had captured or killed almost all the members of La BrigadaThis was a dark moment for the JFK administratio, the USA looked weak and disorganized
24The Creation of the Berlin Wall In June of 1961 Kennedy went to Vienna, Austria to meet with Khrushchev; he would be tested againKhrushchev wanted to stop the amount of people leaving Communist East Germany for West GermanyHe thus demanded that the Western powers recognize East Germany and that the USA, Great Britain and France get out of Berlin which was a city located in East GermanyObviously JFK refused, so Khrushchev responded by building a wall through Berlin placing guards on the wall so that those trying to escape East Berlin could be shot.It lasted for 30 years there afterward, a visible symbol of the Cold WarThe story of the Berlin Wall
25The Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis is one of the most intense in the history of the USAThis occurred in 1962Over the summer, American intelligence agencies learned that Soviet technicians and equipment had landed in CubaTo top it off, military expansion was beginning.October 22nd, 1962 President Kennedy announced on TV that American spy planes had taken photos showing that there were long range missile placed in CubaJFK respondsThese obviously posed a dangerous threatThis was mostly because they were capable of reaching the USAJFK ordered a naval blockade to stop the Soviets from delivering more missilesHe also demanded that they dismantle the weapons and that any weapons used against the USA would be responded to against the Soviet Union
26More on the Crisis The Soviet Union ignored the USA “Nuclear Holocaust seemed evident”The crisispart 2There were many letters that were issued between Khrushchev and JFKThe Soviets offered a dealIf the USA would promised not to invade Cuba and to remove it’s missiles from Turkey near the Soviet border the Soviets would remove their missiles as wellOn October 28th, 1962 an agreement was made and the missile were removedThe truth being that neither side wanted a nuclear war
27“Only lunatics…who themselves want to perish and before they die destroy the world, could do this” Khrushchev
28The ImpactThe Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world the closest it had ever been to nuclear warIt also pushed the two countries to learn to work togetherIn August of 1963 the USA and the Soviet Union finally came together to ban the testing of nuclear weaponsThe backing down of the Soviets lead to the fall of Khrushchev and a new leader who was adamant about building up military and weapons by the SovietsThis also showed the Soviets that they didn’t want to negotiate with the WestThe USA also engaged in a weaponry build up which lasted until the 1980’s
29The AssassinationBy the fall of 1963, President Kennedy and his political advisers were preparing for the next presidential campaign.Although he had not formally announced his candidacy, it was clear that JFK was going to run and he seemed confident—though not over-confident— about his chances for re-election.At the end of September, the President traveled west speaking in nine different states in less than a week. While the trip was meant to put a spotlight on natural resources and conservation efforts, JFK also used it to sound out themes -- such as education, national security, and world peace -- for his run in In particular, he cited the achievement of a limited nuclear test ban, which the Senate had just approved and which was a potential issue in the upcoming election. The public’s enthusiastic response was encouraging.
30Again….!!!A month later, the President addressed Democratic gatherings in Boston and Philadelphia. Then, on November 12, he held the first important political planning session for the upcoming election year. At the meeting, JFK stressed the importance of winning Florida and Texas and talked about his plans to visit both states in the next two weeks. Mrs. Kennedy would be accompanying him on the swing through Texas, which would be her first extended public appearance since the loss of their baby, Patrick, in August.On November 21, the President and First Lady departed on Air Force One for the two-day, five-city tour of Texas. JFK was aware that a feud among party leaders in Texas could jeopardize his chances of carrying the state in 1964, and one of his aims for the trip was to bring Democrats together. He also knew that a relatively small but vocal group of extremists was contributing to the political tensions in Texas and would likely make its presence felt—particularly in Dallas, where UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson had been physically attacked a month earlier after making a speech there.
31The Trip to TexasNonetheless, JFK seemed to relish the prospect of leaving Washington, getting out among the people and into the political fray. The first stop was San Antonio. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Governor John B. Connally and Senator Ralph W. Yarborough led the welcoming partyContinuing on to Houston, he addressed a Latin American citizens’ organization and spoke at a testimonial dinner for Congressman Albert Thomas before ending the day in Fort Worth.A light rain was falling on Friday morning, November 22, but a crowd of several thousand stood in the parking lot outside the Texas Hotel where the Kennedys had spent the night. A platform had been set up and the President, wearing no protection against the weather, came out to make some brief remarks. “There are no faint hearts in Fort Worth,” he began, “and I appreciate your being here this morning. Mrs. Kennedy is organizing herself. It takes longer, but, of course, she looks better than we do when she does it.”
32The Last StandThe presidential party left the hotel and went by motorcade to Carswell Air Force Base for the thirteen-minute flight to Dallas. Arriving at Love Field, President and Mrs. Kennedy disembarked and immediately walked toward a fence where a crowd of well-wishers had gathered, and they spent several minutes shaking hands.The First Lady was presented with a bouquet of red roses, which she brought with her to the waiting limousine. Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie, were already seated in the open convertible as the Kennedys entered and sat behind them. Since it was no longer raining, the plastic bubble top had been left off. Vice President and Mrs. Johnson occupied another car in the motorcade
33The President has been shot!! The procession left the airport and traveled along a ten-mile route that wound through downtown Dallas on the way to the Trade Mart where the President was scheduled to speak at a luncheon. Crowds of excited people lined the streets waving to the Kennedys as they waved back.The car turned off Main Street at Dealey Plaza around 12:30 p.m. As it was passing the Texas School Book Depository, gunfire suddenly reverberated in the plaza. Bullets struck the President’s neck and head and he slumped over toward Mrs. Kennedy. The Governor was also hit in the chest.
34Pronouncing Him DeadThe car sped off to Parkland Memorial Hospital just a few minutes away. But there was little that could be done for the President. A Catholic priest was summoned to administer the last rites and at 1:00 p.m. John F. Kennedy was pronounced dead. Governor Connolly, though seriously wounded, would recover. Cronkite Tells the CountryPeople React to JFK's Assassination
35Lee Harvey OswaldThe President’s body was brought to Love Field and placed on Air Force One. Before the plane took off, a grim-faced Lyndon B. Johnson stood in the tight, crowded compartment and took the oath of office, The brief ceremony took place at 2:38 p.m.Less than an hour earlier, police had arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a recently-hired employee at the Texas School Book Depository. He was being held for the assassination of President Kennedy as well as the fatal shooting, shortly afterward, of Patrolman J.D. Tippit on a Dallas street.Lee Harvey OswaldOn Sunday morning, the 24th, Oswald was scheduled to be transferred from police headquarters to the county jail.Viewers across America watching the live TV coverage suddenly saw a man aim a pistol and fire at point blank range. The assailant was identified as Jack Ruby, a local nightclub owner. Oswald died two hours later at Parkland Hospital.Oswald is ShotWhat really happened to Oswald?
36Jack RubyOn November 24, 1963, Dallas, Texas, police were transferring Lee Harvey Oswald, who had been arrested for assassinating President John F. Kennedy two days earlier, from one jail to another.A crowd of journalists, photographers, and police crowded around in the jail's basement garage, and watched as Oswald was led out and was about to be placed in a police car.Suddenly, Jack Ruby, an owner of a Dallas nightclub and admirer of President Kennedy, stepped forward, drew a gun, and killed Oswald. The whole incident was captured on live television, shocking viewers who witnessed the crimeJack Ruby was found guilty of murder on March 14, 1964, and sentenced to deathIn 1967, Jack Ruby died of cancer in prison before a new trial could be held.A Plot?
37Laying JFK to Rest The Eternal Flame On Monday, November 25, 1963 President Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery. The funeral was attended by heads of state and representatives from more than 100 countries, with untold millions more watching on television.Afterward, an eternal flame was lit at the grave site by Mrs. Kennedy and her husband’s brothers, Robert and Edward. Perhaps the most indelible images of the day were the salute to his father given by little John F. Kennedy, Jr. (whose third birthday it was), daughter Caroline kneeling next to her mother at the President’s bier, and the extraordinary grace and dignity shown by Jacqueline Kennedy.JFK Funeral and John John
38Zapruder Film There were 32 other photographers there that day. The Zapruder FilmThe Zapruder film is a silent Standard 8 mm color home movie of the presidential motorcade of John F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, filmed by a private citizen named Abraham Zapruder.The film is the most complete visual recording of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.There were 32 other photographers there that day.The Warren Commission looked at the Zapruder Film when conducting it’s investigation.Truth or Hoax?
39The Warren CourtAfter Kennedy was killed, Vice President Lyndon Johnson became president, and he appointed the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Chaired by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Commission investigated circumstances surrounding the shootings of Kennedy and Oswald.In September 1964, the commission reported it had found no evidence that Oswald and Ruby were involved in a conspiracy to assassinate the president.
40The Conspiracy Theories Secret Service StandoffConspiracy Theory part 1Part 2part 3What do you think? Assassination? Conspiracy?
41JFK Will Always be Remembered “. . . don't let it be forgot that for one brief shining moment there was Camelot”