Presentation on theme: "ESD in India – towards broad-based teaching, learning and evaluation of students by Marjorie Fernandes Associate Professor, Dept. of Economics Janki Devi."— Presentation transcript:
ESD in India – towards broad-based teaching, learning and evaluation of students by Marjorie Fernandes Associate Professor, Dept. of Economics Janki Devi Memorial College, University of Delhi
Contents Broad-based education – teaching, learning & evaluation of students The four pillars supporting broad-based education Sustainable development through environment education Environment education in India Formal & non-formal environment education in Delhi University Aims Methods/Forms How far does it contribute to broad-based education
Broad-based Education Education involves the integration of the three aspects of teaching, learning & evaluation of students – sometimes, inappropriate student evaluation is the ‘tail that wags the dog’ Education is broad-based when it is based not merely on the one pillar of knowledge, but is balanced also on the other three pillars, viz. doing, being and living together; only such broad-based education can meet the needs of students and society in terms of an enriched personal life & wider SD respectively Even if academic knowledge is somewhat de-emphasized & the other three pillars of education are given some importance in the teaching-learning process, it would still not achieve the desired results if a matching change does not also occur in the evaluation process Implications of the four pillars of education (Lg to know, lg to do, lg to be & lg to live together) for student evaluation
Sustainable Development (SD) SD is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Need for SD: Growing evidence over the past few decades about human behaviour undermining long-term survival – over-consumption & production, pollution, deforestation & desertification, over-use of natural resources, climate change, ozone depletion, huge & increasing disparities in various aspects of economic development, lack of tolerance & cultural understanding threatening world peace; link between local & global development issues in the era of globalization in the 21 st century SD encompasses a variety of issues (environment, poverty, health, security, democracy, gender & human rights, etc.) but environment is predominant Promotion of SD: Envl. Education is an important means to promote envl. awareness – an understanding & appreciation of the inter-relationship between human beings, their culture and their bio-physical surroundings – and concern leading to envl. action &thereby SD
Environment Education (EE)in India Some efforts to environmentalize education before the 1990s reflected in curricula and text-books at the school level but not at the higher education level, e.g. ‘Curriculum for the Ten-Year School’ (1975) underlined the need for EE across the entire gamut of school education; National Policy of Education (1986) recommendation that env. protection should form an integral part of curricula at all stages of education (school & college) not taken seriously Supreme Court of India made EE compulsory at all levels of education in 1991 – only since then has EE been taken seriously at the college level Ministry of Environment & Forests (MEF) has been implementing several schemes & programmes for imparting EE – formal & non-formal EE Formal EE – Although formal education is the mandate of the MHRD, MEF has been interacting with MHRD, NCERT, State Depts. Of Education, etc. to strengthen EE in the formal education system, especially at the school level – text-books modified to infuse envl. concepts and teachers trained for the revised curriculum; at the higher/college education level, a paper or a specialized course on environmental issues introduced Non-Formal EE – diverse activities using traditional & modern media of communication aimed at conservation, protection and management of the env. which in turn is essential for SD – NEAC, Eco-Clubs in schools & colleges, GLOBE, etc.
Formal Envl. Education in Delhi Univ. Colleges – A Paper on ‘Environmental Issues in India’ Objectives introduce student to pressing envl. issues familiarize student with history of envl. issues in India throw light on some dilemmas & problems in envl. debates Course Content 1. The importance of the Env. 2. Geography, ecology & cultures in Pre-Colonial India – Land, Forests, Water, Pastures, Ecology of Hills & mountains 3. Colonialism & Developments in the Env. – New Regimes of Land, Forests, Water & Irrigation; Resistance: Peasants, Tribals & Pastoralists 4. Envl. Issues in Independent India – Forests, Dams, Displacement, Pollution, Degradation 5. Envl. Movements in Independent India – Forests, Dams, Displacements, Pollution 6. Envl. Concerns in a Globalizing World Suggested Readings
Non-Formal Envl. Education in Delhi Univ. Colleges – some examples Miranda House: ‘Vatavaran’, the Env. Society Intra-College Activities: Herbal Garden; Poster-cum-Slogan, Quiz & Essay Competions relating to the Env.; Card-Making Workshop for decorating plain cards made from recycled paper; Minimal Waste campaign (62% waste recycled as paper & vermicompost), Screening of Env. Films; Declamation Contest on Waste Management; National Workshop on Art & Science of Paper Recycling; Income Generation through Sale of Recycled Paper Products, Vermi-Compost & Plants sprouted in the Vermi-Culture Garden Outside College Activities: Film Festival on Env. at IHC; Participation in 3-day RCE’s Asia Pacific Region Conference on ESD, the Indian Youth Climate Network’s Clean-Up of Delhi Univ.’s North Campus drive, Delhi Govt.’s ‘Eco- Club’ Meet, National Seminar on ‘Management of Waste from Electronics & Renewable Energies’, Second YUVA Meet on ‘Understanding Climate Change through the Social Glass’
Lakshmibai College: ‘Sanrakshan’, Society for Envl. Awareness Has a mission to open up a vision of an eco-friendly world to its students Intra-College Activities: Essay-Writing, Art & Craft, Poster-Making Competitions; Annual Exhibition entitled ‘An Eco-Friendly World’ – students get an opportunity to learn about the 3 R’s (Reduce, Re-Use & Recycle); Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme & Production of Organic Manure, Installation of a Solar Bench, Proposal to install a ‘Rainwater Harvesting System’ Outside College Activities: Students taken to workshops/seminars to learn about & enjoy India’s cultural heritage & natural beauty, Participation in Delhi Govt.’s ‘Eco- Club’ Meet relating to Env. Janki Devi Memorial College: ‘Avni’, the Env. Society Intra-College Activities: Essay-Writing, Debate, Poster-Making & Quiz Competitions relating to the Env.; Creating Awareness about the Rain-Water Harvesting Project installed years ago as the first such project in a Delhi Univ. College for which a prize of Rs. one lakh was awarded by the Chief Minister of Delhi; Competitions for learning to identify & know about the many plants & trees on the college campus; Recycling of Paper & Production of Organic Manure Outside College Activities: similar to those of Lakshmibai College
Conclusions In the formal education system, EE is a separate paper/course – not integrated with the rest of the student’s education – hence, it can make limited contribution to SD Generally, the formal education system gives too much emphasis to the pillar of knowing and very little, if any, to the other 3 pillars of being, doing & living together Broad-based education cannot occur when the student evaluation process occupies a predominant position and distorts the teaching-learning process as it happens in the formal education system The non-formal education system is better-balanced than the formal system in so far as all the four pillars are given some emphasis; also, it is more broad-based, as it does not give enough importance to student evaluation to distort the teaching-learning process.