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Intellectual Property. Copyrights  What is intellectual property?  What is a copyright?  A form of protection provided to the authors of “original.

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Presentation on theme: "Intellectual Property. Copyrights  What is intellectual property?  What is a copyright?  A form of protection provided to the authors of “original."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intellectual Property

2 Copyrights  What is intellectual property?  What is a copyright?  A form of protection provided to the authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished. US PTO

3 Why do we have Copyrights  Encourage creativity  Encourage public disclosure of ideas, works  Permit appropriate financial rewards  Recognizes creativity  Gives credit to authors  Reputation / Legacy  Provides a traceable record of accomplishments

4 Citing the Works of Others  Giving credit to the source of ideas, works  For text or figures, etc. in your paper, you must indicate at the point of usage that the material was taken from elsewhere using brackets, e.g. [12] like this  In the reference section (at the end of your paper), you would show the references in order, e.g. as in  If in doubt, use IEEE Journal articles as a guide

5 Using Quotations  If the material is a direct quote of another’s work, then indicate with the use of quotation marks, e.g. “four score and seven years”  If the material is a paraphrase, so indicate simply using the citation, e.g. [12], at the end of each sentence that paraphrases  If the material is very loosely based upon another’s work, just place the citation at the end of each such paragraph

6 Be Sure the Information is Correct – Avoid Plagiarism  Errors in citing references can be a problem  Changing just the words, but keeping the sentence structure can be a problem  Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up a majority of your work, whether or not you give credit, can also be a problem  Errors made by your typist can be a problem  You are responsible for what you turn in

7 Avoiding Plagiarism  Citing references / sources is absolutely essential  Acknowledging material is taken from others  Providing readers with the information needed to locate the source

8 Helpful Hints  Do not turn in a paper that is mostly taken from a single source  Avoid word-for-word translation from another’s work(s)  Avoid taking material from several sources and just tweaking sentences to make them fit together  Don’t spend your time paraphrasing, but spend it being thoughtful and creative  Write out ideas in your own words

9 Referencing Material  Give a complete reference so that others can locate the original work  Do not simply give the URL: instead of saying [12] say [12] How Virtual Private Networks Work by Jeff Tyson,  If it is a quotation, use “quotation marks”  Do not simply state your sources in the text of your paper  Base your paper on several works – do not use the same source over and over again

10 Common Knowledge  No need to cite a reference for commonly known facts, e.g., George Washington was born on February 22,  You must document facts or concepts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts

11 Obtain Permission  If you need to use graphics, figures, or diagrams that are taken directly from a source, obtain permission before you make them part of your publication

12 References  [1] “Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It,” Indiana University, arism.shtml arism.shtml  [2] “What is Plagiarism,” Plagiarism.Org, at_is_plagiarism.html at_is_plagiarism.html


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